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Ecological Assessment for Trace Metal Pollution in a Freshwater Ecosystem
International Journal of Ecotoxicology and Ecobiology
Volume 4, Issue 3, September 2019, Pages: 58-65
Received: Jun. 25, 2019; Accepted: Jul. 19, 2019; Published: Aug. 6, 2019
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Ezeonyejiaku Chigozie Damian, Department of Zoology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria
Okoye Charles Obinwanne, Department of Zoology & Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
Ezenwelu Chijioke Obinna, Department of Applied Biochemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
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Heavy metals in the aquatic environment is of great ecological importance; hence, the study was carried out to evaluate the presence and effects of heavy metals on the water column, fish and sediment composition of Anambra River in July, 2011 and February, 2012 which covered both wet and dry season. The results of the physico- chemical properties showed significant variations (P<0.05) which occurred in DO and conductivity over the sampling seasons on different locations. pH, temperature and salinity showed seasonal difference at P<0.05 in different locations studied. There was no seasonal difference at P>0.05 among the heavy metal concentrations detected in sediment. Post Hoc test also showed no statistical variation (P>0.05) over the five locations: namely Enugu Otu, Ezi - Agulu Otu, Otuocha, Otu Nsugbe and Ukwuibili. There was stable relative non-statistical variations among the heavy metal concentration in the water column but numerical differences demonstrated variability (Otu-Nsugbe > Ezi Agulu Otu > Ukwuibili > Enugu Otu > Otuocha. For the fish species caught both in the rainy and dry season, Clarias gariepinus and Mugil cephalus showed higher (P <0.05) concentrations of Zn in dry than rainy season, while Heterotis niloticus showed higher (P<0.05) concentrations of Zn in rainy than dry season. The highest concentrations of heavy metals were detected in the sediment followed by the fish and finally the water column in a decreasing order of concentrations.
Heavy Metal, Sediment, Fish, River
To cite this article
Ezeonyejiaku Chigozie Damian, Okoye Charles Obinwanne, Ezenwelu Chijioke Obinna, Ecological Assessment for Trace Metal Pollution in a Freshwater Ecosystem, International Journal of Ecotoxicology and Ecobiology. Vol. 4, No. 3, 2019, pp. 58-65. doi: 10.11648/j.ijee.20190403.11
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This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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