Impacts of Discharge of Desalination Plants on Marine Environment at the Southern Part of the Egyptian Red Sea Coast (Case Study)
International Journal of Ecotoxicology and Ecobiology
Volume 4, Issue 3, September 2019, Pages: 66-70
Received: Aug. 19, 2019;
Accepted: Sep. 6, 2019;
Published: Sep. 24, 2019
Views 502 Downloads 65
Hussein Nasr, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Red Sea Branch, Hurghada, Egypt
Mohsen Yousef, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Red Sea Branch, Hurghada, Egypt
Hashem Madkour, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Red Sea Branch, Hurghada, Egypt
There are many researches illustrated that almost lots mankind is suffering from shortage fresh water supply, both of quality and quantity. Considering water inadequate concerns approximately 80 countries and has caused some dangerous results in many places. The water shortage phenomenon is becoming a serious worldwide problem that impacts people’s daily life and obstacle the social development. Because of the population increasing and expansion of industrial and agricultural activities, the governments of many countries get one’s way to implement the desalination plants. A desalination plants is an industrial system that would have the potential to have an effect on environmental ecosystem. This study monitored variety of environmental impacts can be caused by desalination plants. It’s considers a case study for two of the desalination plants located at Shalateen city at Red sea governorate namely; Marsa Humira and Shalateen desalination plants. The investigation unconcealed that there are distinct impacts of the reject water on the marine ecosystem in the front of the two studied stations. The photographs that has been taken to the biota exist in the marine area around the stations elucidated some of coral reefs affected by the discharge of the saline reject around. Coral reef and sea grass are the most biota affected due to the salty discharges that exceed the safe limits for those to be in a healthy condition.
Impacts of Discharge of Desalination Plants on Marine Environment at the Southern Part of the Egyptian Red Sea Coast (Case Study), International Journal of Ecotoxicology and Ecobiology.
Vol. 4, No. 3,
2019, pp. 66-70.
Oki, T., Kanae, S., (2006). Global hydrological cycles and world water resources. Science 313, 1068–1072.
World Water Assessment Programme. (2009). The United Nations World Water Development Report 3: Water in a Changing World. UNESCO Paris.
Bourne, G., (2008). California Desalination Planning Handbook. Sacramento: Center for Collaborative Policy, California State University Sacramento.
Martin, C. A. (2015). Landscape water use in Phoenix, Arizona. Desert Plants.
Einav, R., Harussi, K., Perry, D., (2002). The footprint of the desalination processes on the environment. Desalination 153, 41e154.
Water Consultants International, (2006). Environmental Literature Review and Position Paper for Perth Desalination Plant Two and Sydney Sea Water Reverse Osmosis Plant. Water Corporation of Western Australia.
Tularam, G. A. and llahee, M. (2007). Environmental concerns of desalinating sea water using reverse osmosis. journal of Environmental Monitoring, 9, 805-813.
Lattemann, S. and Hopner, T. (2008). Environmental impact of impact assessment of sea water desalination. Desalination, 220, 1-15.
Frihy, O. E., Hassan, A. N., El Sayed, W. R., Iskander, M. M., and Sherif, M. Y. (2006). A review of methods for constructing coastal recreational facilities in Egypt (Red Sea). Ecological Engineering,27 (1), 1–12. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2005.11.001.
Abdul-Wahab. S. (2007). Characterization of water discharge from two thermal power/ desalination plants in Oman. Environmental Engineering Science 24 3, pp 321-337.
Gunter. G. (1961). Salinity and size in marine fishes. Copeia 1961, 2, pp 234-235.
Coles SL, Jokiel PL (1978). Synergistic effects of temperature, salinity and light on the hermatypic coral Montipora verrucosa. Mar Biol 49: 187-195.
Hiscock, K., Southward, A. J., Tittley, I. and Hawkins, S. J. (2004). Effect of changing temperature on benthic marine life in Britain and Ireland. Aquatic Conservation 14, 333-362.
APHA. (2005). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 20th Ed. American Public Health Association Washington, D. C.
RPS. (2008). Gorgon Project: Sea Water Uptake and Reverse Osmosis Brine Effluent Discharge Study: Environmental Quality Management Framework. Prepared for Chevron Australia Pty Ltd. Report No. M0751 I.
Dawoud, Mohamed A. Al Mulla, Mohamed M. (2012). Environmental Impacts of Seawater Desalination: Arabian Gulf Case Study. International Journal of Environment and Sustainability ISSN 1927‐9566 | Vol. 1 No. 3, pp. 22‐37 (2012).
Hashim, A. and Hajjaj, M. (2005). Impact of desalination plants fluid effluents on the integrity of sea water, with the Arabian Gulf in perspective. Desalination, 182, 373-393.
Raventos, N., Macpherson, E. and Garcia-Rubies, A. (2006). Effect of brine discharge from a desalination plant on macrobenthic communities in the NW Mediterranean. Marine Environmental Research, 62, 1-14.
Roth M. S. (2014). The engine of the reef: Photobiology of the coral‐algal symbiosis. Frontiers in Microbiology, 5, 422 10.3389/fmicb.2014.00422.
Muller-Parker G, D’Elia CF, Cook CB. (2015). Interactions Between Corals and Their Symbiotic Algae. In: Birkeland C, editor. Coral reef in the Anthropocene. Springer, P. 1-271.
Birkeland, C., (2015). Coral Reefs in the Anthropocene, Coral Reefs in the Anthropocene. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-7249-5.
Coles, S. L. (1992). Experimental comparison of salinity tolerances of reef corals from the Arabian Gulf and Hawaii: Evidence for hyperhaline adaptation. Proc 7th Int. Coral Reef Symp, Guam. I, 227-234.
Graham, N. A. J.; Wilson, S. K.; Jennings, S.; Polunin, N. V. C.; Bijoux, J. P.; Robinson, J. (2006). Dynamic fragility of oceanic coral reef ecosystems. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 103 (22), 8425–8429.
Jones, Ian. S. F. (2007). Desalination Plants: Potential impacts of brine discharge on marine life. The Ocean Technology Group.
Einav, R. and Lokiec, F. (2003). Environmental aspects of a desalination plant in Ashkelon. Desalinat ion, 156, 79-85.