Seasonal Variations of Site Diversity Along Earth-Space Paths in Nigeria
International Journal of Information and Communication Sciences
Volume 1, Issue 3, December 2016, Pages: 54-58
Received: Oct. 16, 2016; Accepted: Dec. 28, 2016; Published: Jan. 16, 2017
Views 2563      Downloads 44
Authors
Achor Jane O., Department of Electrical/Electronic and Computer Engineering University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria
Udofia Kufre M., Department of Electrical/Electronic and Computer Engineering University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria
Obot Akaninyene B., Department of Electrical/Electronic and Computer Engineering University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Site diversity (SD) is an effective technique for mitigating rain attenuation in satellite communications, especially in regions where rainfall rates are high. Nigeria is characterised by the tropical climate, this implies that rainfall rates are generally high. This paper presents a study of the seasonal variation of site diversity technique in Nigeria at Ka-band frequency of 20 GHz. Rainfall data obtained from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET) over a period of five years (2010 to 2014) were analysed to derive the one-minute rainfall rate distribution for four selected earth stations (University of Uyo, Uyo (UNIUYO); Akwa Ibom International Airport, Uyo (AKIA); Margaret Ekpo International Airport, Calabar (MEIA); and Port Harcourt International Airport, Port Harcourt (PHIA)) within the South-South Nigeria. The link parameters of Nigerian Communication Sattelite-1R (NigComSat-1R) were incorporated into the ITU-R model for rain attenuation to estimate the rain attenuation distribution through a seasonal cumulative distribution and percentage of outage time between 0.01 to 100%. Site diversity was implemented, taking University of Uyo as the reference site. The results obtained show that SD technique is most effective between the months of March and May and least effective between September and December.
Keywords
Rain Rate, Rain Attenuation, Cumulative Distribution, Site Diversity
To cite this article
Achor Jane O., Udofia Kufre M., Obot Akaninyene B., Seasonal Variations of Site Diversity Along Earth-Space Paths in Nigeria, International Journal of Information and Communication Sciences. Vol. 1, No. 3, 2016, pp. 54-58. doi: 10.11648/j.ijics.20160103.14
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Yeo, J. X., Y. H. Lee, and J. T. Ong, Performance of Site Diversity Investigated Through RADAR Derived Results. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2011. 59 (10): p. 3890-3898.
[2]
Arapoglou, P. D. M., et al., Diversity techniques for satellite communications: an educational graphical tool. Antennas and Propagation Magazine, IEEE, 2004. 46 (3): p. 109-114.
[3]
Semire, F. A., et al., Modeling of rain attenuation and site diversity predictions for tropical regions. Ann. Geophys., 2015. 33 (3): p. 321-331.
[4]
Ippolito, L. J., Propagation Effects Handbook for Satellite Systems Design, in Section 2 Prediction, L. J. Ippolito, Editor 1999: Ashburn, Virginia 20147.
[5]
Ajayi, G. Rain intensity and Randrop Size Measurement in Nigeria. in Seminar on Radioware propagation in Tropical Regions, Trieste (Italy). 1993.
[6]
Chebil, J. and T. Rahman, Rain rate statistical conversion for the prediction of rain attenuation in Malaysia. Electronics letters, 1999. 35 (12): p. 1019-1021.
[7]
Moupfouma, F., Electromagnetic waves attenuation due to rain: A prediction model for terrestrial or LOS SHF and EHF radio communication links. Journal of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, 2009. 30 (6): p. 622-632.
[8]
Moupfouma, F. and L. Martin, Modelling of the rainfall rate cumulative distribution for the design of satellite and terrestrial communication systems. International Journal of Satellite Communications, 1995. 13 (2): p. 105-115.
[9]
Ojo, J. S., M. O. Ajewole, and S. K. Sarkar, Rain rate and rain attenuation prediction for satellite communication in Ku and Ka bands over Nigeria. Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, 2008. 5: p. 207-223.
[10]
Isikwe, B., A. Ikoyo, and E. Utah, Analysis of Rainfall Rates and Attenuations for Line-of-Sight EHF/SHF Radio Communication Links over Makurdi, Nigeria. Research Journal of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 2013. 3: p. 60-74.
[11]
Union, I. T., Propagation data and prediction methods required for the design of Earth-space telecommunication systems, in ITU-R P.618-12 Recommendation 2015, ITU Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R).
[12]
Yussuff, A. I. and N. H. Khamis, Rain Attenuation Modelling and Mitigation in The Tropics: Brief Review. International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2012. 2 (6): p. 748.
[13]
Malinga, S., P. Owolawi, and T. Afullo, Estimation of rain attenuation at C, Ka, Ku and V bands for satellite links in South Africa. PIERS Proceedings, Taipei, March, 2013: p. 25-28.
[14]
Otung, I. and S. Enoch, Mitigation of rain attenuation in fixed WiMAX using cell site diversity. Electronics letters, 2011. 47 (5): p. 349-351.
[15]
Hendrantoro, G., R. J. C. Bultitude, and D. D. Falconer, Use of cell-site diversity in millimeter-wave fixed cellular systems to combat the effects of rain attenuation. Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on, 2002. 20 (3): p. 602-614.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186