Essential and Toxic Heavy Metals Status in Some Fruits from Turaba District (Saudi Arabia), Health Risk Assessment
Science, Technology & Public Policy
Volume 2, Issue 2, December 2018, Pages: 26-37
Received: Aug. 29, 2018;
Accepted: Sep. 30, 2018;
Published: Nov. 9, 2018
Views 136 Downloads 19
Awad Abdalla Momen Abdelkareem, Department of Chemistry, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia; Department of Chemistry, University of Bahri, Khartoum, Sudan
Mohamed Hesham Hassan Mahmoud, Department of Chemistry, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia; Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute, Helwan, Egypt
Dafaalla Mohamed Hag Ali, Department of Chemistry, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia; Department of Chemistry, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan
Mohammed Awad Ali Khalid, Department of Chemistry, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia; Department of Chemistry, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan
Saad Hmoud M. Alotaibi, Department of Chemistry, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia
Malik Abdalla Abdelrahman Elsheikh, Department of Chemistry, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia; Department of Chemistry, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan
This study was carried out to determine the essential (Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni and Zn) and the toxic heavy metals (Al, As, Cd and Pb) in fruit samples of commonly consumed in Turaba District, (Saudi Arabia). Samples were digested by microwave assisted reaction system using (3:1) HNO3:H2O2 mixture. The metals were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Studied samples includes bananas (Musa acuminata), tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum), guava (Psidium guajava), grapes (Vitis spp), date palm (Phoenix dactylifera), mangos (Mangifera indica), cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melo), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), orange (Citrus maxima), mandarin (Citrus reticulata), lemon (Citrus limon) and pomegranate (Punica Granatum). The method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy and precision, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ). The recovery (%) was found to be between 91.6–103.4%. It was found that Ca (~14.79 mg/kg), Mg (~10.46 mg/kg), Na (~6.327 mg/kg), K (~166.33 mg/kg) and Zn (2.85 mg/kg) were predominant among the major elements, while, Cr (~0.001 mg/kg), Cu (~0.147 mg/kg), Fe (~0.104 mg/kg) and Mn (~0.010 mg/kg) were comparable. The concentration of toxic heavy metals (Cd, Al, As and Pb) were mostly below LOD and they may not develop any health problems, while Co and Ni were not detected in all studied fruit samples. Moreover, the estimated concentrations of all metals in the present study were lower than the limits that permitted by Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA) and World Health Organization (WHO). This is results is also confirmed by the estimated daily dietary elements intake (EDDEI) values. This indicate that, fruit types of commonly consumed in Turaba District and other parts in Saudi Arabia may not rises any health risk to consumers. Student's t-test, ANOVA test at 95% confidence interval and Microsoft excel were employed to estimate the significance of values obtained.
Awad Abdalla Momen Abdelkareem,
Mohamed Hesham Hassan Mahmoud,
Dafaalla Mohamed Hag Ali,
Mohammed Awad Ali Khalid,
Saad Hmoud M. Alotaibi,
Malik Abdalla Abdelrahman Elsheikh,
Essential and Toxic Heavy Metals Status in Some Fruits from Turaba District (Saudi Arabia), Health Risk Assessment, Science, Technology & Public Policy.
Vol. 2, No. 2,
2018, pp. 26-37.
Gupta, C., Gupta, G. (2014). Sources and Deficiency Diseases of Mineral Nutrients in Human Health and Nutrition: A Review. Pedosphere 24 (1):13–38.
Konczak, I., and Roulle, P. (2011). Nutritional Properties of Commercially Grown Native Australian Fruits: Lipophilic antioxidants and minerals. Food Res. Int. 44 (7):2339–44.
Haruenkit, R., Poovarodom, S., Leontowicz, H., Leontowicz, M., Sajiwicz, M., Kowalska, T., Gelgado-Licon, E., Rocha-Guzmaan, E., Alberto, J. Infante, G. Trakhtenberg, S. and Gorinstein. S. (2007). Comparative study of Health properties and Nutritional Value of Durian, Mangosteen, and Snake Fruit: Experiments in Vitro and in Vivo. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55 (14):5842–5849.
Bourre, M. (2006). Effects of Nutrients (in food) on the Structure and Function of the Nervous System: Update on Dietary Requirements for Brain. Part 1: Micronutrients. J. Nutr. Health Aging. 10 (5):377–385.
Alzahrani, R., Kumakli H., Ampiah E., Mehari T., Thornton J., Babyak M., Fakayode O. (2017). Determination of Macro, Essential Trace Elements, Toxic Heavy Metal Concentrations, Crude Oil Extracts and Ash Composition from Saudi Arabian Fruits and Vegetables Having Medicinal Values. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 10, 906–913.
Committee on Military Nutrition Research (CMNR): Institute of Medicine, (1999). The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance.
Islam, S., Ahmed, K., Habibullah-Al-Mamun, M., Islam, N., Ibrahim, M., Masunaga, S. (2014). Arsenic and Lead in Foods: a Potential Threat to Human Health in Bangladesh. Food Addit. Contam. Part A 31 (12):1982–1992.
Shuhaimi-Othmana, M., Pascoe, D. (2007). Bioconcentration and Depuration of Copper, Cadmium, and Zinc Mixtures by the Freshwater Amphipod Hyalella Azteca. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 66 (1):29–35.
Rainbow, S., Amiard-Triquet, C., Amiard, C., Smith, D. and Langston, J. (2000). Observations on the Interaction of Zinc and Cadmium uptake Rates in Crustaceans (Amphipods and Crabs) from Coastal Sites in UK and France Differentially Enriched with Trace Metals. Aquatic Toxicology 50, 189–204.
Martin, R., Arana, D., Ramos-Miras, J., Gil, C. and Boluda, R. (2015). Impact of 70 Years Urban Growth Associated with Heavy Metal Pollution. Environ. Pollut. 196, 156–163.
Islam, S., Ahmed, M. K., Raknuzzaman, M., Habibullah-Al-Mamun, M. and Masunaga, S. (2015). Metal Speciation in Sediment and Their Bioaccumulation in Fish Species of Three Urban Rivers in Bangladesh. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 68, 92–106.
Ahmed, K., Shaheen, N., Islam, M. S., Al-Mamun, M. H., Islam, S., Mohiduzzaman, M. and Bhattacharjee, L. (2015). Dietary Intake of Trace Elements from Highly Consumed Cultured Fish (Labeorohita, Pangasius Pangasius and Oreochromis Mossambicus) and Human Health Risk Implications in Bangladesh. Chemosphere 128, 284–292.
Yi, Y., Yang, Z. and Zhang, S. (2011). Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Sediment and Human Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Fishes in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River Basin. Environ. Pollut. 159, 2575–2585.
Agarwal, A., Khanna, P., Baidya, K. and Arora, K. (2011). Trace Elements in Critical Illness. J Endocrinol Met. 1, 57–63.
Momen, A., Khalid, M., Elsheikh, M. and Ali, D. (2013). Assessment and Modifications of Digestion Procedures for Determination of Trace Elements in Urine of Hypertensive and Diabetes Mellitus Patients. Journal of Health Specialties, 1 (3):122–128.
Momen, A., Zachariadis, G., Anthemidis, A. and Stratis, J. (2008). Optimization and comparison of two digestion methods for multi–element analysis of certified reference plant materials by ICP–AES. Application of Plackett–Burman and central composite designs. Microchim Acta, 160 (4):397–403.
Mehari, F., Greene, L., Duncan, A. and Fakayode, O. (2015). Trace Elements Concentrations in Fresh Fruits, Vegetables, Herbs and Processed Foods. J. Environ. Prot. 6, 573–583.
Hu, J., Wu, F., Wu, S., Cao, Z., Lin, X. and Wong, H. (2013). Bioaccessibility, dietary exposure and human risk assessment of heavy metals from market vegetables in Hong Kong revealed with an in vitro gastrointestinal model. Chemosphere 91, 455–461.
Sharma, K., Agrawal, M. and Marshall, M. (2009). Heavy Metals in Vegetables Collected from Production and Market Sites of a Tropical Urban Area of India. Food Chem. Toxicol. 47, 583–591.
Al-Ahmary, M. (2009). Selenium Content in Selected Foods from the Saudi Arabia Market and Estimation of the Daily Intake. Arab. J. Chem. 2, 95–99.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IRAC), (2006). Summaries and Evaluations: Inorganic and Organic Lead Compounds. Monographs for the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, vol. 87, Lyon.
Zaidi, I., Asrar, A., Mansoor, A. and Farooqui, A. (2005). The Heavy Metal Concentrations along Roadside Trees of Quetta and Its Effects on Public Health. J. Appl. Sci. 5, 708–711.
Davydova, S. (2005). Heavy Metals as Toxicants in Big Cities. Microchem. J. 79, 133–136.
Goldhabe, B. (2003). Trace Element Risk Assessment: Essentiality vs. Toxicity. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 38, 232–242.
Jarup, L. (2003). Hazards of Heavy Metal Contamination. Br. Med. Bull. 68, 167–182.
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), (2012). Cadmium Dietary Exposure in the European population. EFSA J. 10, 2551–2588.
World Health Organization (WHO), (2010). Quantifying Environmental Health Impacts. World Health Organization, Geneva.
Fewtrell, L., Kaufmann, R. and Pruss-Ustun, A. (2003). Assessing the Environmental Burden of Disease at National and Local Levels. Environmental Burden of Disease Series No. 2. World Health Organization, Geneva.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry (ATSDR), (2005). Toxicological Profile for Lead. U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Services.
Steenland, K. and Boffeta, P. (2000). Lead and cancer in humans: where are we now? Am. J. Ind. Med. 38, 295–299.
Vadala, R., Mottese, F., Bua, A., Salvo, D., Mallamace, A., Corsaro, D., Vasi, C., Alfa, S., Cicero, M. and Dugo, G. (2016). Statistical Analysis of Mineral Concentration for the Geographic Identification of Garlic Samples from Sicily (Italy) Tunisia and Spain. Foods.
Bua, G., Annuario, G., Albergamo, A., Cicero, N. and Dugo, G. (2016). Heavy Metals in Aromatic Spices by Inductively Coupled Plasmamass Spectrometry. Food Addit. Contam.: Part B. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19393210.2016.1175516
Licata, P., Bella, D., Potort, G., Turco, V., Salvo, A., and Dugo, M. (2012). Determination of Trace Elements in Goat and Ovine Milk from Calabria (Italy) By ICP-AES. Food Addit. Contam. Part B Surveill. 5 (4), 268–271.
Dembitsky, M., Poovarodom, Leontowicz, H., Leontowicz, M., Veeraslip, S. Trakhtenberg, S. and Gorinstei, S. (2011). The Multiple Nutrition Properties of Some Exotic Fruits: Biological Activity and Active Metabolites. Food Res. Int. 44 (7):1671–1701.
Park, B., Shin, A., Park, K., Ko, P., Ma, H., Lee, H., Gwack, J. and Jung, J. (2011). Ecological Study for Refrigerator Use, Salt, Vegetable, Fruit Intakes and Gastric Cancer. Cancer Causes & Control 22, 1497–1502.
Tucker, K. L. (2009). Osteoporosis Prevention and Nutrition. Curr. Osteoporos. Rep. 7, 111–117.
Lampe, J. W. (1999). Health Effects Of Vegetables And Fruit: Assessing Mechanisms of Action in Human Experimental Studies. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 70 (3):475–490.
Vogtmann, E., Xiang, B., Li, L., Levitan, B., Yang, G. and Waterbor, W. (2013). Fruit and Vegetable Intake and The Risk of Colorectal Cancer: Results from the Shanghai Men’s Health Study. Cancer Causes Control 24, 1935–1940.
Momen, A., Zachariadis, G., Anthemidis, A. and Stratis, J. (2007). Use of Saturated Factorial Design for Optimization of Digestion Procedures Followed by Multi – Element Determination of Essential and Non–Essential Elements in Nuts Using ICP–OES Technique. Talanta 71 (1):443–451.
Sabrina, F, Oliveira, E. and Pedro, O. (2003). On-line Digestion in a Focused Microwave-Assisted Oven for Elements Determination in Orange Juice by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry, J. Braz. Chem. Soc., 14 (3):435–441.
Sayim, K. and Cagran, F. (2009). Multielement Determination in Fruit, Soaps and Gummy Extract of Pistacia Terebinthus L. By ICP OES. Turk J Biol. 33, 311–318.
Boss, B. and Fredeen, J. (2004). Instrumentation and Techniques in Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry, USA, 3rd ed. Perkin Elmer Press.
Iyengar, V., Subramanian, S. and Woittiez, W. (1997). Element Analysis of Biological Samples Principles and Practice, CRC Press: Boca Raton, New York.
Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA), (2018). Food Sector, Executive Department Of Food Control, Saudi Arabia, Riyadh.
Pereira, F., Pereira, F., Schmidt, L., Moreira, M., Barin, S., and Flores, M. (2013). Metals Determination In Milk Powder Samples For Adult And Infant Nutrition After Focused Microwave Induced Combustion. Microchem. J. 109 (1):29–35.
Bressy, C., Brito, B., Barbosa, S., Teixeira, G., and Korn, A. (2013). Determination of Trace Element Concentrations in Tomato Samples at Different Stages of Maturation by ICP-OES and ICP-MS Following Microwave-Assisted Digestion. Microchem. J. 109, 145–149.
Miller, J. and Miller, J. (2010). Statistics and Chemometrics for Analytical Chemistry 6th ed. Trans–Atlantic Pubns Inc, Pearson Education Canada.
Olmedo P, Pla A, Hernndez A, Lpez-Guarnido O, Rodrigo L, Gil F. (2010). Validation Of A Method To Quantify Chromium, Cadmium, Manganese, Nickel And Lead In Human Whole Blood, Urine, Saliva And Hair Samples By Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Analytica Chimica Acta 659, 60–67.
Peters, T., Drummer, H., and Musshoff, F. (2007). Validation of New Methods. Forensic Sci. Int. 165 (2):216–224.
Pacquette, H., Szabo, A., Thompson, J. and Baugh, S. (2012). Application of Inductively Coupled Plasma/Mass Spectrometry for the Measurement of Chromium, Selenium, And Molybdenum in Infant Formula and Adult Nutritional Products: First action 2011. 19. J. AOAC Int. 95 (3):588–598.
Barone, G., Storelli, A. Garofalo, R. Busco, P. Quaglia, C. Centrone, G. and Storelli, M. (2015). Assessment of mercury and cadmium via seafood consumption in Italy: Estimated dietary intake (EWI) and target hazard quotient (THQ). Food Addit. Contam. A. 32 (8):1277–1286.
Khan, S., Cao, Q., Zheng, Y. M., Huang, Z. and Zhu, G. (2008). Health Risks of Heavy Metals in Contaminated Soils and Food Crops Irrigated with Wastewater in Beijing, China. Environ. Pollut. 152, 686–692.
Saha, N. and Zaman, R. (2012). Evaluation Of Possible Health Risks Of Heavy Metals By Consumption Of Foodstuffs Available In The Central Market Of Rajshahi City, Bangladesh; Environ. Monit. Assess. 185, 3867–3878.
Commission of the European Communities (CEC), (2001). Commission Regulation (EC) No. 221/2002 of 6 February 2002 amending regulation (EC) No. 466/2002 Setting Maximum Levels Contaminants in Foodstuffs. Official Journal of the European Communities, Brussels, 6 February 2002.
Akoto, O., Bismark, F., Darko, G. and Adei, E. (2014). Concentrations and Health Risk Assessments of Heavy Metals in Fish from the Fosu Lagoon, Int. J. Environ. Res., 8 (2):403–410.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), (2004). Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology, Clifton Road, NE, Atlanta, GA, available at: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles.
National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council (NAS-NRC), (1982). Drinking Water and Health, National Academic Press, Washington D. C.
World Health Organization (WHO). 1996. Trace Elements In Human Nutrition And Health, WHO Library Cataloguing in Publication Data, ISBN: 92-4-156173-4 (NLM Classification: QU 130), Geneva.
Elsheikh, M., Housham, M. and Momen, A. (2017). Determination of Selected Toxic Trace Elements in Agricultural Soil and Wells Water Samples by ICP-OES. Oriental Journal of Chemistry 33 (5):2263–2270.
Aggarwal, S., Kinter, M., Fitzgerald, R. and Herold, D. (1994). Mass Spectrometry of Trace Elements in Biological Samples. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 31, 35–87.