Impacts of Conflicting, Institutional Mandates on Water Security: Pathways for Water Sector Development in Turkana County, Kenya
Science, Technology & Public Policy
Volume 4, Issue 2, December 2020, Pages: 44-53
Received: May 11, 2020;
Accepted: May 27, 2020;
Published: Jun. 8, 2020
Views 75 Downloads 29
Benard Oula Muok, Directorate of Research, Innovation and Partnerships, Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science and Technology, Bondo, Kenya
Ong’ech Dennis Onyango, Reach Kenya Programme, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
His paper elucidates the interactions between different formal and informal institutions in water governance through a case study of water distribution in Turkana County. Like other counties in Kenya, the governance of water in Turkana is currently taking place amidst a process of political devolution, changing policies and laws, and complex socio-cultural changes brought about by changing the environment. This contributes to re-shaping patterns of governance over water resources in new and somewhat unpredictable ways. Further, the different governance systems often result in overlapping authorities. These overlapping authorities often result in results in tensions between the involved institutions. At some point, there are usually conflicts of interest over governance issues, authority, strategic planning and management of programs, projects or activities. Such administrative wrangles cause enormous problems and delays in service delivery; hence citizens suffering water insecurity. The study assesses the roles of both formal and informal institutions in addressing water insecurity and how much these institutions are involved in policy processes, decision-making and implementation of strategies and programs. The results from this study indicate that institutional conflicts result from poor strategic planning, failure to align national and County policies, delayed adoption of devolution principals and political interests which have significantly compromised water service delivery thus water security in Turkana. Such factors have resulted in institutional overlaps, financial challenges, insufficient management capacity within institutions, policy and operational gaps, human resource capacity, poor evaluation and monitoring gaps.
Benard Oula Muok,
Ong’ech Dennis Onyango,
Impacts of Conflicting, Institutional Mandates on Water Security: Pathways for Water Sector Development in Turkana County, Kenya, Science, Technology & Public Policy.
Vol. 4, No. 2,
2020, pp. 44-53.
Malik, Nightingale, A. J. and Ojha, H. R. (2013). Rethinking power and authority: symbolic violence and subjectivity in Nepal’s Terai forests. Development and Change, 44, 29-51.
Nightingale, A. J. (2018). The socioenvironmental state: Political authority, subjects, and transformative socionatural change in an uncertain world. Nature and Space E. 1, 688-711.
Kanda, E., Taragon, J., Waweru S. et al. (2013) the Water Act 2002 and the Constitution of Kenya 2010: Coherence and Conflicts towards Implementation. Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology.
Paavola, J. (2007). Institutions and environmental governance: A reconceptualization. Ecological Economics 63 (1) 93-103.
Lemos, M. C. and Agrawal, A. (2006). Environmental governance. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 31, 297-325.
Nightingale, A. J. (2017). Power and politics in climate change adaptation efforts: Struggles over authority and recognition in the context of political instability. Geoforum 84, 11-20.
Eriksen, S. H., Nightingale, A. and Eakin, H. 2015. Reframing adaptation: the political nature of climate change adaptation. Global Environmental Change, 35, 523-533.
Ribot, J. C. 2003. Democratic decentralization of natural resources: Institutional choice and discretionary power transfers in sub-saharan Africa. Public Administration and Development 23, 53-65.
Coultier, J. E., Witinok-Huber, R. A., Bruyere, B. L., Nyingi, W. D. 2019. Giving women a voice on decision-making about water: barriers and opportunities in Laikipa, Kenya. Gender, Place and Culture 26, 489-509.
REACH (2015) Country Diagnostic Report, Kenya. REACH Working Paper 3, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
MoWI, 2006. The National Water Resources Management Strategy (NWRMS), 2006-2008.
Saravanan, V. S., McDonald, G. T. and Mollinga, P. P. (2009). Critical review of Integrated Water Resources Management, Natural Resources Forum Report. Natural Resources Forum 33 (2009) 76–86.
Water Resources Group, 2015. Water Resources in Kenya: Closing the Gap. Briefing Notes. https://www.2030wrg.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Kenya-Hydro-Economic-Briefing-Note_May2015.pdf.
D'Arcy, M. Cornell, A. 2016: Devolution and Corruption in Kenya: Everyone’s Turn to Eat? African Affairs, 115/459, PP. 246–273. Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/afraf/adw002.
Cheeseman, N., Lynch, G. and Willis, J. (2016). Decentralization in Kenya: the governance of governors. The Journal of Modern African Studies, 54, pp 1-35 doi: 10.1017/S0022278X1500097X.
TCG, 2016. The Turkana County Water and Sewerage Services Sector Policy.
Mack, N., Woodsong, C., and MacQueen, K, et al. (2005) Qualitative Research Methods: A Data Collector's Field Guide. North Carolina: Family Health International.
Rahman, S. (2016). The Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches and Methods in Language “Testing and Assessment” Research: A Literature Review. Journal of Education and Learning; Vol. 6, No. 1.
Alexa Hepburn and Galina B. Bolden, 2017. Transcribing for social research. Sage Publications.
Millennium Water Alliance, 2018. Turkana County Capacity Needs Assessment Report. Water Sector. Bridge Africa ADC.
Olago, O. O. (2018), Constraints and solutions for groundwater development, supply and governance in urban areas in Kenya. Hydrogeology Journal. Accessible from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-018-1895-y.
Haines, S., Imana, C. A., Opondo, M., Ouma, G. and Rayner, S. (2017) Weather and climate knowledge for water security: Institutional roles and relationships in Turkana. REACH Working Paper 5, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
Koehler, J., Rayner, S., Katuva, J., Thomson, P. and Hope, R. (2018) A cultural theory of drinking water risks, values and institutional change. Global Environmental Change, 50: 268-277.
Derman, B., Hellum, A., Manzungu, E., Sithole, P., and Machiridza, R. (2007), Community-based water law and water resources management reform in developing countries, Cambridge International.
Intelligence Community Assessment (2012), Global Water Security, ICA.