Water Reuse (WR): Dares, Restrictions, and Trends
Applied Engineering
Volume 3, Issue 2, December 2019, Pages: 159-170
Received: Oct. 9, 2019; Accepted: Oct. 28, 2019; Published: Oct. 31, 2019
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Authors
Djamel Ghernaout, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Ha’il, Ha’il, Saudi Arabia; Chemical Engineering Department, University of Blida, Blida, Algeria
Noureddine Elboughdiri, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Ha’il, Ha’il, Saudi Arabia; Chemical Engineering Process Department, University of Gabes, Gabes, Tunisia
Salah Al Arni, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Ha’il, Ha’il, Saudi Arabia
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Abstract
Drinking water is beginning to be a rare resource in several regions and both uses of water and wastewater outlet are of main environmental and economic significance in several nations. This work discusses dares, restrictions, and trends for water reuse (WR). WR so far constitutes a vital water supply in several regions. Reuse is largely expanding in the US, Australia, Europe, and different countries. Its potential is largely unexploited; nevertheless, because of some handicaps, comprising a deficiency of policy from governments and the public’s opposition to resolved indirect potable reuse. WR must not be considered as just the remedy and reuse of wastewater effluents. On the contrary, a larger concept, comprising the reclamation and reuse of brackish groundwater, usage of stormwater and agriculture return flows, and desalination of the oceans, must be adopted. Despite the acquired advances in WR technologies and applications, great efforts remain to be accomplished to generalize WR implementations throughout the world. More attention should be accorded to the public acceptance of WR in terms of drinking water usage via ensuring highly treated wastewater especially in terms of bacteriological qualities. WR development would decrease the desalination tendency that is largely viewed until now as an ultimatum solution for water shortage knowing that it is relatively less expensive.
Keywords
Water Reuse (WR), Wastewater Treatment, Potable Water, Operation and Maintenance (O&M), Nanofiltration (NF), Reverse Osmosis (RO)
To cite this article
Djamel Ghernaout, Noureddine Elboughdiri, Salah Al Arni, Water Reuse (WR): Dares, Restrictions, and Trends, Applied Engineering. Vol. 3, No. 2, 2019, pp. 159-170. doi: 10.11648/j.ae.20190302.23
Copyright
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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