From human and animal provenances, antibiotic-resistant microorganisms come into water mediums. Such bacteria are capable of diffusing their genes into water-indigenous microbes, which as well hold resistance genes. Conversely, several antibiotics from industrial sources spread in water mediums, greatly modifying microbial ecosystems. During the last decade, hazard evaluation protocols for antibiotics and resistant bacteria in water, founded on better programs for antibiotics discovery and antibiotic resistance microbial origin tracking, are more and more enhanced. Techniques to decrease resistant bacterial charge in wastewaters and the number of antimicrobial agents, in most cases originated in hospitals and farms, involve regulation of disinfection methods and running of wastewater and manure. For avoiding mixing human-originated and animal-originated microorganisms with ecological organisms, a procedure is more than recommended. This work reviews the facts and future trends of this new open and imposed field in dealing with domestic wastewater. It is vital to elevate efficient barrier measures such as membranes processes, like reverse osmosis and nanofiltration, avoiding the integration of resistant and pathogenic bacteria into nature. Techniques have to be developed for cheap and reliable: first, bacterial clones and resistance genes origin tracking; second, detection of antibiotics in water mediums; third, disinfection of water from antibiotic-resistant populations and the resistance gene pool, and elimination of antibiotics from wastewater; and fourth, prevention policies for mixing human–animal-originated and soil–water bacteria.
Antibiotics Resistance in Water Mediums: Background, Facts, and Trends, Applied Engineering.
Vol. 4, No. 1,
2020, pp. 1-6.
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