Analysis of Heavy Metals Content of Tobacco Cigarette Brand Sold in Samaru Area of Zaria, Nigeria
Industrial Engineering
Volume 2, Issue 2, December 2018, Pages: 52-55
Received: Sep. 18, 2018; Accepted: Oct. 12, 2018; Published: Nov. 10, 2018
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Authors
Oladunni Nathaniel, Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Nigerian Institute of Leather and Science Technology, Zaria, Nigeria
Mairiga Ambina Ayuba, Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Nigerian Institute of Leather and Science Technology, Zaria, Nigeria
Agbele Idowu Elijah, Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Nigerian Institute of Leather and Science Technology, Zaria, Nigeria
Galadima Ehud Bulus, Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Nigerian Institute of Leather and Science Technology, Zaria, Nigeria
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Abstract
Increase in tobacco smoking has been associated with health implications, hence the need for research into the heavy metal content of tobacco cigarettes. In this study, five brands of cigarettes commonly consumed were analyzed. The sample preparation procedures were based on the method of Campbell (1998). Five packets of different brands of tobacco cigarette were purchased from samaru market in Zaria and were labeled A, B, C, D and E respectively. Five sticks from each packet of the cigarette were randomly selected for homogenous representation, making a total of 25 samples (5 for each brand of tobacco). These cigarette were analysed for the presence of four heavy metals, namely Cadmium (Cd), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) Using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). The concentration of Cadmium (Cd), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in A was found to be 10.20, 0.06, 12.30, 2.80mg/kg respectively. The concentration of Cadmium (Cd), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in B was found to be 10.22, 0.06, 17.86, 3.20mg/kg respectively. The concentration of Cadmium (Cd), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in C was found to be 23.18, 0.06, 13.44 and 3.08mg/kg respectively. The concentration of Cadmium (Cd), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in D was found to be 14.82, 0.40, 14.58 and 3.08mg/kg respectively while the concentration of Cadmium (Cd), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in E was found to be 8.54, 0.00, 16.10 and 2.76mg/kg respectively. The physicochemical analysis of these cigarette brand was also carried out and The moisture content of brand A, B, C, D and E was found to be 0.91, 0.88, 0.94, 1.85 and 0.79 % respectively with the order of variation as D > C > A > B > E. The ash content of brand A, B, C, D and E was found to be 11.15, 10.45, 10.15, 5 and 11.35 % respectively with the order of variation as E > A > B > C > D. The pH value of brand A, B, C, D and E was found to be 5.86, 5.91, 5.67, 5.58 and 5.36 respectively From this study, it was observed that cadmium (Cd) concentration is within permissible limit of 0.05 mg/kg in all the tobacco cigarette samples analysed, with sample E having no trace of Cadmium in it. Zinc (Zn) and Chromiuim (Cr) concentrations in all the tobacco cigarette samples analysed is higher than the WHO/FAO permissible limit of 25 and 0.5 mg/kg respectively. The concentration of Pb in all the tobacco cigarette samples analysed was found to be above the WHO/FAO permissible limit of 0.05 mg/kg, and could cause serious health problem like lead poisoning, low fertility, cancer and so on.
Keywords
Heavy Metals, Cigarette, WHO/FAO Permissible Limit, AAS
To cite this article
Oladunni Nathaniel, Mairiga Ambina Ayuba, Agbele Idowu Elijah, Galadima Ehud Bulus, Analysis of Heavy Metals Content of Tobacco Cigarette Brand Sold in Samaru Area of Zaria, Nigeria, Industrial Engineering. Vol. 2, No. 2, 2018, pp. 52-55. doi: 10.11648/j.ie.20180202.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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