Analysis of Heavy Metals Content of Tobacco Cigarette Brand Sold in Samaru Area of Zaria, Nigeria
Volume 2, Issue 2, December 2018, Pages: 52-55
Received: Sep. 18, 2018;
Accepted: Oct. 12, 2018;
Published: Nov. 10, 2018
Views 330 Downloads 48
Oladunni Nathaniel, Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Nigerian Institute of Leather and Science Technology, Zaria, Nigeria
Mairiga Ambina Ayuba, Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Nigerian Institute of Leather and Science Technology, Zaria, Nigeria
Agbele Idowu Elijah, Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Nigerian Institute of Leather and Science Technology, Zaria, Nigeria
Galadima Ehud Bulus, Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Nigerian Institute of Leather and Science Technology, Zaria, Nigeria
Follow on us
Increase in tobacco smoking has been associated with health implications, hence the need for research into the heavy metal content of tobacco cigarettes. In this study, five brands of cigarettes commonly consumed were analyzed. The sample preparation procedures were based on the method of Campbell (1998). Five packets of different brands of tobacco cigarette were purchased from samaru market in Zaria and were labeled A, B, C, D and E respectively. Five sticks from each packet of the cigarette were randomly selected for homogenous representation, making a total of 25 samples (5 for each brand of tobacco). These cigarette were analysed for the presence of four heavy metals, namely Cadmium (Cd), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) Using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). The concentration of Cadmium (Cd), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in A was found to be 10.20, 0.06, 12.30, 2.80mg/kg respectively. The concentration of Cadmium (Cd), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in B was found to be 10.22, 0.06, 17.86, 3.20mg/kg respectively. The concentration of Cadmium (Cd), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in C was found to be 23.18, 0.06, 13.44 and 3.08mg/kg respectively. The concentration of Cadmium (Cd), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in D was found to be 14.82, 0.40, 14.58 and 3.08mg/kg respectively while the concentration of Cadmium (Cd), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in E was found to be 8.54, 0.00, 16.10 and 2.76mg/kg respectively. The physicochemical analysis of these cigarette brand was also carried out and The moisture content of brand A, B, C, D and E was found to be 0.91, 0.88, 0.94, 1.85 and 0.79 % respectively with the order of variation as D > C > A > B > E. The ash content of brand A, B, C, D and E was found to be 11.15, 10.45, 10.15, 5 and 11.35 % respectively with the order of variation as E > A > B > C > D. The pH value of brand A, B, C, D and E was found to be 5.86, 5.91, 5.67, 5.58 and 5.36 respectively From this study, it was observed that cadmium (Cd) concentration is within permissible limit of 0.05 mg/kg in all the tobacco cigarette samples analysed, with sample E having no trace of Cadmium in it. Zinc (Zn) and Chromiuim (Cr) concentrations in all the tobacco cigarette samples analysed is higher than the WHO/FAO permissible limit of 25 and 0.5 mg/kg respectively. The concentration of Pb in all the tobacco cigarette samples analysed was found to be above the WHO/FAO permissible limit of 0.05 mg/kg, and could cause serious health problem like lead poisoning, low fertility, cancer and so on.
Heavy Metals, Cigarette, WHO/FAO Permissible Limit, AAS
To cite this article
Mairiga Ambina Ayuba,
Agbele Idowu Elijah,
Galadima Ehud Bulus,
Analysis of Heavy Metals Content of Tobacco Cigarette Brand Sold in Samaru Area of Zaria, Nigeria, Industrial Engineering.
Vol. 2, No. 2,
2018, pp. 52-55.
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Rabinoff M., Caskey N., Rissling A., Park C, (2007). Pharmacological and Chemical Effects of Cigarette Additives.American Journal of Public Health 97:1981-1991.
Noler, B. N., Mayes, T. L., Raite, U. Y. and Sail, S. S. (2006). Quality assessment of contamination of water and air in heavy metals. African Journal of Biotechnology. 8: 67 – 77.
WHO, (2007) Trace metal concentration in different Indian tobacco products and related health implications. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48(5): 2291-2297.
Elinder, O. (2010). Smokeless tobacco and oral cancer. Journal of Botany, 10: 230.
Zhang M. K., Liu Z. Y. and Wang H., (2010). Use of single extraction methods to predict bioavailability of heavy metals in polluted soils to rice. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 41(7): 820–831.
Corrao, A., Guindon, E., Sharma, N and Shokoohi, F. (2000) Tobacco Control Country Profiles, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA. 67-73.
Iwuoha, N., Oghu, I and Onwuachu, I. (2013). Levels of selected heavy metals in some brands of Cigarettes marketed in University of Port Harcourt, Rivers state. Journal Applied Sciences Environmental Management, 17 (4): 561-564.
Campbell, R and Plank, O. (1998). Preparation of plant tissue for laboratory analysis. In Kalra, Y.P. (ed.) Handbook of reference method for plant analysis. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 75-80.
Awofolu, O.R., Z. Mbolekwo, V. Mtshemla and O.S. Fotoki, 2005. Levels of trace metals in water and sediments from tyume river and its effects on an irrigated farmland. Water S. A., 31: 87-94.
AOAC. (1997). Official Method Of Analysis. 14th. Edition Association of Analytical Chemistry Washington, D.C. 16.
Warra, N. P., Machmensh, K. O., and Gabriel, O. U. (2012). Analysis of soap produced using local oil. 12.
Adam, E and Bhagwan, C. (2017). Assessment of heavy metals in tobacco of cigarettes commonly sold in Ethiopia. Chemistry International, 3 (3): 212-218.
Onojah, P. K., Daluba, N. E. and Odin, E. M. (2014). Investigation of Heavy Metals in Selected Samples of Cigarette Randomly Purchased from Local Markets in Anyigba and its Environment and Tobacco Leaves Grown in Kogi State, Nigeria. International Journal of Innovative Research in Technology and Science. 3 (4): 14- 17.
Liu X; Lu .J; Liu .S, (1999) Mutation-Research. 440: 109-117.
Ola, M. (2014) Determination and Assessment of heavy metals in tobacco sold and smoked in Palestinian market. An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine. Faculty of Graduate Studies, Environmental Science. 221- 227.
Anhwange B. A; Kagbu J. A; Agbaji E. B; and Gimba C. E (2009). Trace metal content of some common vegetables grown on irrigated farms along the banks of river Benue within Markurdi Metropolis. Electronic Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Food Chemistry volume 11: 1150-1155.
Atiqurrehman, M. Nasiruddin, K. Anila, S. and Sadaf, B. (2014). Physicochemical Analysis of Different Cigarettes Brands Available in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Analysis Environmental. Chemistry. 15 (2): 134-145.