Electrical conductivity in food and agricultural products is gaining attentions in response to ohmic heating and pulsed electric field processing, the newly emerging food processing technologies. Electrical conductivity of agricultural product is the ability of the products to conduct electric current. This paper is intended to review the electrical conductivity in foods in general and fruits and vegetables in particular. For this review to take its form, different articles, books and other possible sources have been reviewed, cited and acknowledged. So, this paper has been enriched by composition of the finding of different authors and researcher. Since measurement of electrical conductivity has number of application in agricultural products and food processing, methods of measuring this property is important. Measurement of electrical conductivity can be through dielectric analysis and electrical impendence spectroscopy measurement. In dielectric analysis high frequency area (100 MHz - 10 GHz) is used and this has an application in moisture determination and bulk density measurement. In electrical impendence spectroscopy, the range of frequency is from 100Hz to 10MHZ and is simple and easier techniques used to evaluate physiological status of various biological tissues. There are factors affecting electrical conductivity of agricultural products; electrical conductivity is reported by different authors to be increasing with temperature, field strength, and storage duration until the product is over ripe in case of fruits and vegetables. Plus, conductivity also found decreasing with increasing sugar content. The decrease in firmness of fruits and vegetables is related to increase in its conductivity. The nature of product and way of applying electricity is also other factors affecting conductivity. Electrical conductivity has number of application in foods, fruits and vegetable industries. However, still much work is expected for the utilization of its high potentials application.
Review on Electrical Conductivity in Food, the Case in Fruits and Vegetables, World Journal of Food Science and Technology.
Vol. 4, No. 4,
2020, pp. 80-89.
Kaur, R., Gul, K. and Singh, A. K., 2016. Nutritional impact of ohmic heating on fruits and vegetables—A review. Cogent Food & Agriculture, 2 (1), p. 1159000.
Sarang, S., Sastry, S. K. and Knipe, L., 2008. Electrical conductivity of fruits and meats during ohmic heating. Journal of Food Engineering, 87 (3), pp. 351-356.
Brennan, J. G. and Grandison, A. S. eds., 2006. Food processing handbook.
Ahmed, D. M., Yousef, A. R. and Hassan, H. S. A., 2010. Relationship between electrical conductivity, softening and color of Fuerte avocado fruits during ripening. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America, 1 (5), pp. 878-885.
Soumitra T., 2004. Physical, Optical and Electrical Properties of Food material, Bilaspur (C. G.): Bilaspur University, 2004.
Rao, M. A., Rizvi, S. S., Datta, A. K. and Ahmed, J. eds., 2014. Engineering properties of foods. CRC press.
Zhang, H., 2009. Electrical properties of foods. GV Barbosa-Canovas, Food Engineering, 1, pp. 110-119.
De Alwis, A. A. P. and Fryer, P. J., 1992. Operability of the ohmic heating process: electrical conductivity effects. Journal of Food Engineering, 15 (1), pp. 21-48.
Lamsal, B. P. and Jindal, V. K., 2014. Variation in electrical conductivity of selected fruit juices during continuous Ohmic heating. KMUTNB International Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 7 (1), p. 47.
Knirsch, M. C., Dos Santos, C. A., de Oliveira Soares, A. A. M. and Penna, T. C. V., 2010. Ohmic heating–a review. Trends in food science & technology, 21 (9), pp. 436-441.
Takatori, E., Chosa, T. and Tojo, S., 2017. Impedance Analysis of Sweet Potato Tuberous Roots Accompanying Heating. Chemical Engineering Transactions, 58, pp. 337-342.
Ragni, L., Gradari, P., Berardinelli, A., Giunchi, A. and Guarnieri, A., 2006. Predicting quality parameters of shell eggs using a simple technique based on the dielectric properties. Biosystems Engineering, 94 (2), pp. 255-262.
Afzal, A., Mousavi, S. F. and Khademi, M., 2010. Estimation of leaf moisture content by measuring the capacitance.
Barbosa-Canovas, G. V., Juliano, P. and Peleg, M., 2006. Engineering properties of foods, in food engineering. Encyclopaedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS); EOLSS: Oxford, UK.
Castro, I., Teixeira, J. A., Salengke, S., Sastry, S. K. and Vicente, A. A., 2003. The influence of field strength, sugar and solid content on electrical conductivity of strawberry products. Journal of Food Process Engineering, 26 (1), pp. 17-29.
Icier, F. İ. L. İ. Z. and ILICALI, C., 2004. Electrical conductivity of apple and sourcherry juice concentrates during ohmic heating. Journal of Food Process Engineering, 27 (3), pp. 159-180.
Darvishi, H., Khoshtaghaza, M. H., Zarein, M. and Azadbakht, M., 2012. Ohmic processing of liquid whole egg, white egg and yolk. Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal, 14 (4), pp. 224-230.
Sosa-Morales, M. E., Tiwari, G., Wang, S., Tang, J., Garcia, H. S. and Lopez-Malo, A., 2009. Dielectric heating as a potential post-harvest treatment of disinfesting mangoes, Part I: Relation between dielectric properties and ripening. Biosystems engineering, 103 (3), pp. 297-303.
Gupta, V., 1992. Experimental determination of electrical conductivity of selected fruit juice.
Sastry, S. K., 2009. Ohmic heating. Food Engineering-Volume III, p. 37.
Montoya, M., López-Rodriguez, V. and De La Plaza, J. L., 1994. Electrical conductivity in avocado as maturity index. In Developments in Food Engineering (pp. 945-947). Springer, Boston, MA.
Athmaselvia, K. A., Viswanathanb, R., Balasubramanianc, M. and Roy, I., 2014. The effects of concentration and type of electrode on electrical conductivity of guava pulp during ohmic heating. Journal of Food Research and Technology, 2 (3), pp. 113-123.
Wang, C. S., Kuo, S. Z., Kuo-Huang, L. L. and Wu, J. S. B., 2001. Effect of tissue infrastructure on electric conductance of vegetable stems. Journal of food science, 66 (2), pp. 284-288.
Blahovec, J., 2008. Dielectric properties of deformed early potatoes. Research in Agricultural Engineering, 54, pp. 113-122.
Neefs, V., Leuridan, S., Van Stallen, N., De Meulemeester, M. and De Proft, M. P., 2000. Frost sensitiveness of chicory roots (Cichorium intybus L.). Scientia horticulturae, 86 (3), pp. 185-195.
Vega-Mercado, H., Gongora-Nieto, M. M., Barbosa-Canovas, G. V. and Swanson, B. G., 2004. Pulsed electric fields in food preservation. FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY-NEW YORK-MARCEL DEKKER-, 167, p. 783.
Zerbini, P. E., 2006. Emerging technologies for non-destructive quality evaluation of fruit. Journal of fruit and ornamental plant research, 14, p. 13.
Jha, S. N., Narsaiah, K., Basediya, A. L., Sharma, R., Jaiswal, P., Kumar, R. and Bhardwaj, R., 2011. Measurement techniques and application of electrical properties for nondestructive quality evaluation of foods—a review. Journal of food science and technology, 48 (4), pp. 387-411.
Juansah, J., Budiastra, I. W., Dahlan, K. and Seminar, K. B., 2012. Electrical behavior of garut citrus fruits during ripening changes in resistance and capacitance models of internal fruits. IJET-IJENS, 12 (04), pp. 1-8.
Wilhelm, L. R., Suter, D. A. and Brusewitz, G. H., 2004. Food and process engineering technology (No. TP370 W54 2004).
Hlaváčová, Z., 2003. Low frequency electric properties utilization in agriculture and food treatment. Res. Agr. Eng, 49 (4), pp. 125-136.
Mancuso, S., 2000. Electrical resistance changes during exposure to low temperature measure chilling and freezing tolerance in olive tree (Olea europaea L.) plants. Plant, Cell & Environment, 23 (3), pp. 291-299.
Massah, J., Hajiheydari, F. and Derafshi, M. H., 2018. Application of Electrical Resistance in Nondestructive Postharvest Quality Evaluation of Apple Fruit.
Jamaludin, D., Abd Aziz, S., Ahmad, D. and Jaafar, H. Z., 2015. Impedance analysis of Labisia pumila plant water status. Information Processing in Agriculture, 2 (3-4), pp. 161-168.
R. Deullin, 1980. "Electrical conductivity of the skin of the banana, a physical characteristic which can be used for improved assessment of fruit development. Fruits,," vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 273-281.
Darshana, S., and Snehal Bhosale "Ripeness Inspection System for Banana," International Journal of Computer Applications, pp. 6-9, 2015.