Please enter verification code
Confirm
A Summary of Producing Acetoin by Biological Method
World Journal of Food Science and Technology
Volume 4, Issue 4, December 2020, Pages: 90-103
Received: Oct. 27, 2020; Accepted: Nov. 11, 2020; Published: Nov. 30, 2020
Views 93      Downloads 57
Authors
Hui Xu, Key Laboratory of Food and Fermentation Engineering of Shandong Province, Shandong Food Ferment Industry Research and Design Institute, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan, PR China
Ying Cui, Yantai Hengyuan Biological Co., Ltd., Yantai, PR China
Yanjun Tian, Key Laboratory of Food and Fermentation Engineering of Shandong Province, Shandong Food Ferment Industry Research and Design Institute, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan, PR China
Shanshan Wang, Key Laboratory of Food and Fermentation Engineering of Shandong Province, Shandong Food Ferment Industry Research and Design Institute, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan, PR China
Kunfu Zhu, Shandong Zhushi Pharmaceutical Group Co., Ltd., Heze, PR China
Siduo Zhou, Key Laboratory of Food and Fermentation Engineering of Shandong Province, Shandong Food Ferment Industry Research and Design Institute, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan, PR China
Yanhong Huang, Key Laboratory of Food and Fermentation Engineering of Shandong Province, Shandong Food Ferment Industry Research and Design Institute, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan, PR China
Qiangzhi He, Key Laboratory of Food and Fermentation Engineering of Shandong Province, Shandong Food Ferment Industry Research and Design Institute, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan, PR China
Yanlei Han, Key Laboratory of Food and Fermentation Engineering of Shandong Province, Shandong Food Ferment Industry Research and Design Institute, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan, PR China
Liping Liu, Key Laboratory of Food and Fermentation Engineering of Shandong Province, Shandong Food Ferment Industry Research and Design Institute, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan, PR China
Wenjing Li, Food and Drug College, Shandong Institute of Commercial Technology, Jinan, PR China
Lei Zhu, Shandong Zhushi Pharmaceutical Group Co., Ltd., Heze, PR China
Guozheng Jiang, Yantai Hengyuan Biological Co., Ltd., Yantai, PR China
Jianjun Liu, Key Laboratory of Food and Fermentation Engineering of Shandong Province, Shandong Food Ferment Industry Research and Design Institute, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan, PR China
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Acetoin (3-hydroxy-2-butanone) is an important frankincense flavor and 4-carbon platform compound, which is widely used in food, daily chemical, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. With the continuous improvement of people's living standards, it has proposed more food safety High requirements. At present, the US JM Company, German BASF Company and Japan's Xinda Company mainly produce 3-hydroxybutanone in the world. At present, its production method is mainly based on chemical synthesis. The process has serious pollution, complex process, unstable product quality, and limited raw material sources. Biological method has abundant raw material sources and can be regenerated, environmentally friendly process, mild conditions, and products. High quality and other advantages have attracted attention. At present, there is no report on the scale production of 3-hydroxybutanone by biological method at home and abroad. Coming from the pressures of population, resources, environment, etc., the traditional chemical industry using fossil resources as raw materials is bound to be gradually replaced by new and environmentally friendly biochemical industries using renewable resources as raw materials. Carrying out environmentally friendly, abundant sources of raw materials, mild conditions, products can be regarded as pure natural microbial fermentation technology to produce 3-hydroxybutanone technology has broad prospects for promotion and application. This article summarizes the research status of the production of 3-hydroxybutanone by biological methods, including 3-hydroxybutanone producing strains, 3-hydroxybutanone synthesis pathway, 3-hydroxybutanone decomposition pathway, metabolic mechanism and related enzymes, metabolic regulation Mechanism and efficient accumulation strategy of 3-hydroxybutanone.
Keywords
Producing Acetoin, Biological Method, Strains, Metabolic Mechanism, Accumulation Strategy
To cite this article
Hui Xu, Ying Cui, Yanjun Tian, Shanshan Wang, Kunfu Zhu, Siduo Zhou, Yanhong Huang, Qiangzhi He, Yanlei Han, Liping Liu, Wenjing Li, Lei Zhu, Guozheng Jiang, Jianjun Liu, A Summary of Producing Acetoin by Biological Method, World Journal of Food Science and Technology. Vol. 4, No. 4, 2020, pp. 90-103. doi: 10.11648/j.wjfst.20200404.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Xu, H., Jia, S. R., and Liu, J. J. (2011). Development of a mutant strain of Bacillus subtilis showing enhanced production of acetoin. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10 (5): 779-788.
[2]
Tian, Y. J., Xu, H., Liu, J. J., Chen, W., Sun, W. T., and Chen, Y. Q. (2016). Construction of acetoin high-producing Bacillus subtilis strain. Biotechnology and Biotechnological Equipment, 30 (4): 700-705.
[3]
Fan, Y. X., Tian, Y. J., Zhao, X. Y., Zhang, J. X., and Liu, J. J. (2013). Isolation of acetoin-producing bacillus strains from Japanese traditional food—natto. Preparative Biochemistry Biotechnology, 43 (6): 551–564.
[4]
Zhang, J. J., Zhao, X. Y., Zhang, J. X., Zhao, C., Liu J. J., Tian, Y. J., and Yang, L. P. (2017). Effect of deletion of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase gene (bdhA) on acetoin production of Bacillus subtilis. Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 47 (8): 761-767.
[5]
Yu, T. M., Wang, Y. H., and Yang, B. (2008). Study on the preparation of natural milk scent base by combination of microbial fermentation and enzymatic method. Food Fermentation Industry, 34 (10): 153-157.
[6]
Zhang, X. Z., Zeng, C. Y., and Ren, X. G. (2001). Current status and prospects of synthetic study of acetyl couples. Jiangsu Chemical Industry, 4: 29-31.
[7]
Ji, X. J., He, H., and Du, J. (2008). Progress in the synthesis and application of acetoin. Modern Chemical Industry, 28 (4): 81.
[8]
Christen, P and López-Munguia, A (1994). Enzymes and food flavor: a review. Food Biotechnology, 8 (2): 167-190.
[9]
Hummel, W., Kula, M. R., and Boermann, F. Microbiologically prepared diacetyl reductase. U. S. Patent 5,164,314, Nov 17, 1992.
[10]
Defaveri, D., Torre, P., and Molinari, F. (2003). Carbon material balances and bioenergetics of 2,3-butanediol bio-oxidation by Acetobacter hansenii. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 33 (5): 708-719.
[11]
Xiao, Z. J., Liu, P. H., and Qin, J. Y. (2007). Statistical optimization of medium components for enhanced acetoin production from molasses and soybean meal hydrolysate. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 74 (1): 61-68.
[12]
Yu, E. K and Saddler J. N (1983). Fed-batch approach to production of 2,3-butanediol by Klebsiella pneumoniae grown on high substrate concentrations. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 46: 630-635.
[13]
Gupta, K. G., Yadav, N. K., and Dhawan, S. (1978). Laboratory-scale production of acetoin plus diacetyl by Enterobacter cloacae ATCC 27613. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 20: 1895-1901.
[14]
Dettwiler, B., Dunn, I. J., and Heinzle, E. (1993). A simulation model for the continuous production of acetoin and butanediol using Bacillus subtilis with integrated pervaporation separation. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 41 (8): 791-800.
[15]
Ui, S., Masuda, H., and Muraki, H. (1983). Laboratory-scale production of 2,3-butanediol isomers (D (−), L (+), and Meso) by bacterial fermentations. Journal of Fermentation Technology, 61: 253-259.
[16]
Kaneko, T., Takahashi, M., and Suzuki, H. (1990). Acetoin fermentation by citrate-positive Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis 3022 grown aerobically in the presence of hemin or Cu2+. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 56: 2644-2649.
[17]
Zeng, A. P., Biebl, H., and Deckwer, W. D. (1991). Production of 2,3-butanediol in a membrane bioreactor with cell recycle. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 34: 463-468.
[18]
Boumerdassi, H., Monnet, C., and Desmazeaud, M. (1997). Isolation and properties of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis CNRZ 483 mutants producing diacetyl and acetoin from glucose. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 63: 2293-2299.
[19]
Nakashimada, Y., Kanai, K., and Nishio, N. (1998). Optimization of dilution rate, pH and oxygen supply on optical purity of 2, 3-butanediol produced by Paenibacillus polymyxa in chemostat culture. Biotechnology Letters, 20: 1133-1138.
[20]
Xiao, Z. J and Xu, P (2007). Acetoin metabolism in bacteria. Critical Reviews in Microbiology, 33: 127-140.
[21]
Qin, J., Xiao, Z. J., and Ma, C. (2006). Production of 2,3-butanediol by Klebsiella pneumoniae using glucose and ammonium phosphate. Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering, 14: 132-136.
[22]
Afschar, A. S., Bellgardt, K. H., and VazRossell, C. E. (1991). The production of 2,3-butanediol by fermentation of high test molasses. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 34 (5): 582-585.
[23]
Han, L. (2007). Breeding and fermentation conditions of high-yield acetoin. Master thesis of Shandong Institute of Light Industry.
[24]
Xu, P., Xiao, Z. J., and Du, Y. An acetoin high yield Bacillus pumilus strain. Chinese. Patent WO/2006/053480, May 26, 2006.
[25]
Zhao, X. Y., Liu, J. J., and Zhang, J. X. A strain of Bacillus subtilis producing high purity 3-hydroxybutanone. Chinese. Patent ZL200710013402.5, Jan 28, 2009.
[26]
Liu, J. J., Zhao, X. Y., and Tian, Y. J. Application of a strain of Bacillus subtilis in the preparation of 3-hydroxybutanone. Chinese. Patent ZL 200710013403. X, Nov 25, 2009.
[27]
Teixeira, R. M., Cavalheiro, D., and Furigo, J. A. (2002). Optimization of acetoin production by Hanseniaspora guilliermondii using experimental design. Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 19 (2): 181-186.
[28]
Olson, B. H and Johnson, M. J (1948). The production of 2,3-butylene glycol by Aerobacter aerogenes. Journal of Bacteriology, 55 (2): 209-222.
[29]
Braneni, A. L and Keenan, T. W (1971). Diacetyl and acetoin production by Lactobacillus casei. Applied Microbiology, 22 (4): 517-521.
[30]
Jeffrey, D., Hillman, S., and Andrews, W. (1987). Acetoin production by wild-type strains and a lactate dehydrogenase-deficient mutant of Streptococcus mutans. Infection and Immunity, 55 (6): 1399-1402.
[31]
Hikmet, G., Zéev, B., and David, M. (2004). Enhanced production of acetoin and butanediol in recombinant Enterobacter aerogenes carrying Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene. Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering, 26 (5): 325-330.
[32]
Hespell, R. B. (1996). Fermentation of xylan, corn fiber, or sugars to acetoin and butanediol by Bacillus polymyxa Strains. Current Microbiology, 32: 291-296.
[33]
Juni, E. (1952). Mechanisms of formation of acetoin by bacteria. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 195 (2): 715-726.
[34]
Harold, J. S and Sever, O (1954). Pyruvate oxidation system and acetoin formation. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 209: 313-326.
[35]
Juni, E and Heym, G. A (1956). A cyclic pathway for the bacterial dissimilation of acetylmethylcarbinol and diacetyl. I. General aspects of the 2,3-butanediol cycle. Journal of Bacteriology, 71: 425-432.
[36]
Juni, E and Heym, G. A (1956). A cyclic pathway for the bacterial dissimilation of 2,3-butanediol, acetylmethylcarbinol and diacetyl. II. The synthesis of diacetylmethylcarbinol from diacetyl, a new diphosphothiamin catalyzed reaction. Journal of Bacteriology, 72: 746-753.
[37]
Juni, E and Heym, G. A (1957). A cyclic pathway for the bacterial dissimilation of 2,3-butanediol, acetylmethylcarbinol and diacetyl. III. A comparative study of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenases from various microorganisms. Journal of Bacteriology, 74: 759-767.
[38]
Ui, S., Hosaka, T., and Ohtsuki, T. (2002). Acetylacetoin synthase as a marker enzyme for detecting the 2,3-butanediol cycle. Journal of Bioscience and Biotechnology, 93: 248-251.
[39]
López, J and Fortnagel, P (1972). The regulation of the butanediol cycle in Bacillus subtilis. Biochimical et biophysica acta, 279 (3): 554-560.
[40]
López, J., Thoms, B., and Fortnagel, P. (1973). Mutants of Bacillus subtilis blocked in acetoin reductase. European Journal of Biochemistry, 40 (2): 479-483.
[41]
López, J., Thoms, B., and Rehbein, H. (1975). Acetoin degradation in Bacillus subtilis by direct oxidative cleavage. European Journal of Biochemistry, 57: 425-430.
[42]
Grundy, F. J., Turinsky, A. J., and Henkin, T. M. (1994). Catabolite regulation of Bacillus subtilis acetate and acetoin utilization genes by CcpA. Journal of Bacteriology, 176 (15): 4527-4533.
[43]
Huang, M., Oppermann, S., and Steinbüchel, A. (1999). Biochemical and molecular characterization of the Bacillus subtilis acetoin catabolic pathway. Journal of Bacteriology, 181 (12): 3837-3841.
[44]
Priefert, H., Hein, S., and Krüger, N. (1991). Identification and molecular characterization of the Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 aco operon genes involved in acetoin catabolism. Journal of Bacteriology, 173 (13): 4056-4071.
[45]
Huang, M., Oppermann, F. B., and Steinbüchel, A. (1994). Molecular characterization of the Pseudomonas putida 2,3-butanediol catabolic pathway. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 124: 141-150.
[46]
Deng, W. L., Chang, H. Y., and Peng, H. L. (1994). Acetoin catabolic system of Klebsiella pneumoniae CG43: sequence, expression, and organization of the aco operon. Journal of Bacteriology, 176 (12): 3527-3535.
[47]
Ali, N. O., Bigenon, J., and Rapoport, G. (2001). Regulation of the acetoin catabolic pathway is controlled by sigma L in Bacillus subtilis. Journal of Bacteriology, 183 (8): 2497-2504.
[48]
Phalip, V., Christophe, M., and Philippe, S. (1994). Purification and properties of the α-acetolactate decarboxylase from Lactococcus lactis subsp. Lack NCDO 2118. FEBS Letters, 351: 95-99.
[49]
Kruger, N., Oppermann, F. B., and Lorenzl, H. (1994). Biochemical and molecular characterization of the clostridium magnum acetoin dehydrogenase enzyme system. Journal of Bacteriology, 176 (1): 3614-3630.
[50]
Carballo, J., Martin, R., and Bernardo, A. (1991). Purification, characterization and some properties of diacetyl (acetoin) reductase from Enterobacter aerogene. European Journal of Biochemistry, 18: 327-332.
[51]
Isabel, V., Josefa, G., and Bernardo, A. (1988). Purification and characterization of diacetyl-reducing enzymes from Staphylococcus aureus. Biochemical Journal, 251: 461-466.
[52]
Klaus, B., Øyvind, H., and Fredrik, C. S. (1971). The reduction of diacetyl and acetoin in Aerobacter aerogenes evidence for one enzyme catalyzing both reactions. European Journal of Biochemistry, 18: 116-119.
[53]
Øyvind, H., Klaus, B., and Fredrik, C. S. (1971). Diacetyl (acetoin) reductase from Aerobacter aerogenes evidence for multiple forms of the enzyme. European Journal of Biochemistry, 20: 206-208.
[54]
Liv, J., Sip, H. L., and Fredrik, C. S. (1973). Diacetyl (acetoin) reductase from Aerobacter aerogenes kinetic studies of the reduction of diacetyl to acetoin. European Journal of Biochemistry, 34: 97-99.
[55]
Forlani, G., Mantelli, M., and Nielsen, E. (1999). Biochemical evidence for multiple acetoin-forming enzymes in cultured plant cells. Phytochemistry, 50: 255-262.
[56]
Halpern, Y. S. (1967). Further evidence for two distinct acetolactate synthetases in Aerobacter aerogenes. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 139: 502-504.
[57]
Zahler, S. A., Benjamin, L. G., Glatz, B. S. (1976). Genetic mapping of alsA, alsR, thyA, kauA, and citD markers in Bacillus subtilis. In D. Schlessinger (ed.), Microbiology; American Society for Microbiology: Washington.
[58]
Thomas, P. S and Jack, P (1952). Mechanism of acetoin synthesis by a-Carboxylase. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 9: 316-327.
[59]
Holtzclaw, W. D and Chapman, L. F (1975). Degradative acetolactate synthase of Bacillus subtilis: purification and properties. Journal of Bacteriology, 121 (13): 917-922.
[60]
Nakano, M. M., Dailly, Y. P., and Zuber, P. (1997). Characterization of anaerobic fermentative growth of Bacillus subtilis: identification of fermentation end products and genes required for growth. Journal of Bacteriology, 179 (21): 6749-6755.
[61]
Williams, O. B and Morrow, M. B (1928). The bacterial destruction of acetyl-methyl-carbinol. Journal of Bacteriology, 16: 43-48.
[62]
Ppermann, F. B., Schmidt, B., and Steinbüchel, A. (1991). Purification and characterization of acetoin: 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol oxidoreductase, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, and dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase of the Pelobacter carbinolicus acetoin dehydrogenase enzyme system. Journal of Bacteriology, 173 (2): 757-767.
[63]
Oppermann, F. B and Steinbüchel, A (1994). Identification and molecular characterization of the aco genes encoding the Pelobacter carbinolicus acetoin dehydrogenase enzyme system. Bacteriology, 176 (2): 469-485.
[64]
Ui, S., Hosaka, T., and Mizutani, K. (1998). Purification and properties of acetylactoin synthase as from Bacillus sp. YUF-4. Journal of Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 62: 795-797.
[65]
Renna, M. C., Najimudin, N., and Wink, L. R. (1993). Regulation of the Bacillus subtilis alsS, alsD, and alsR genes involved in post-exponential phase production of acetoin. Journal of Bacteriology, 175: 3863-3875.
[66]
Lopez, J. M and Thoms, B (1976). Beziehungen zwischen katabolischer repression und sporulation bei Bacillus subtilis. Archives of Microbiology, 109 (1-2): 181-186.
[67]
Grundy, F. J., Waters, D. A., and Takova, Y. T. (1993). Identification of genes involved in utilization of acetate and acetoin in Bacillus subtilis. Molecular Microbiology, 10 (2): 259-271.
[68]
Mallonee, D. H and Speckman, R. A (1988). Development of a mutant strain of Bacillus polvmvxa showing enhanced production of 2,3-butanriol. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 54: 168-171.
[69]
Ley, J. D. (1959). On the formation of acetoin by acetobacter. Journal of general Microbiology, 21 (10): 852-865.
[70]
Li, Y. F., Zhang, Z. B., and Du Y. (2008). Effects of intermediate metabolites and by-products on anabolic metabolism of acetoin. Proceedings of the 7th China Symposium on Flavor and Fragrance, 126-129.
[71]
Ling, G. T. (1997). Food Additives Handbook. Chemical Industry Press, Beijing.
[72]
Niels, K and Alexander, S (1992). Identification of acoR, a regulatory gene for the expression of genes essential for acetoin catabolism in Alcaligenes eutrophus H16. Journal of Bacteriology, 174 (13): 4391-4400.
[73]
Priefert, H and Steinbuchel, A (1992). Identification and molecular characterization of the acetyl coenzyme A synthetase gene (acoE) of Alcaligenes eutrophus. Journal of Bacteriology, 174 (20): 6590-6599.
[74]
Priefert, H., Kruger, N., and Jendrossek, D. (1992). Identification and molecular characterization of the gene coding for acetaldehyde dehydrogenase II (acoD) of Alcaligenes eutrophus. Journal of Bacteriology, 174 (3): 899-907.
[75]
Thony, B., Anthamatten, D., and Hennecke, H. (1989). Dual control of the Bradyrhizobium japonicum symbiotic nitrogen fixation regulatory operon fix RnifA: analysis of cis-and trans-acting elements. Journal of Bacteriology, 171 (8): 4162-4169.
[76]
Saito, S., Inoue, H., and Ohno, K. Alpha-hydroxyketone derivatives, liquid crystal compositions containing said derivatives, and liquid crystal devices using said compositions. U. S. Patent 5,164,112, Nov 17, 1992.
[77]
Oppermann, F. B., Schmidt, B., and Steinbuchel, A. (1991). Purification and characterization of acetoin: 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol oxidoreductase, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase and dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase of the Pelobacter carbinolicus acetoin dehydrogenase enzyme system. Journal of Bacteriology, 173 (2): 757-767.
[78]
Oppermann, F. B., Steinbuchel, A., and Schlegel, H. G. (1989). Exidence for oxidative thiolytic cleavage of acetoin in Pelobacter carbinolicus analogous to aerobic oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate. FMES Microbiology Letters, 60 (1): 113-118.
[79]
Schink, B. (1984). Fermentation of 2,3-butanediol by Pelobacter carbinolicus sp. nov. and Pelobacter propionicus sp. nov., and evidence for propionate formation from C2 compounds. Archives of Microbiology, 137 (1): 33-41.
[80]
Claudia, F., Horst, P., and Alexander, S. (1989). Biochemical and genetic analyses of acetoin catabolism in Alcaligenes eutrophus. Journal of Bacteriology, 171 (2): 6539-6548.
[81]
Varga, J., Stirewalt, V. L., and Melville, S. B. (2004). The CcpA protein is necessary for efficient sporulation and enterotoxin Gene (cpe) regulation in Clostridium perfringens. Journal of Bacteriology, 186 (16): 5221–5229.
[82]
Mizuno, W. G and Jezeski, J. J (1961). Starter metabolism. V. the mechanism of acetoin formation as determined with C14 labeled substrates. Journal of Dairy Science, 44 (4): 579-588.
[83]
Susan, B. (1996). The Merck Index, Published by Merck Research Laboratorites.
[84]
Opdyke, D. L. J. (1979). Monographs on fragrance raw meterials. Food and Cosmetics Toxicology, 17 (5): 509-511.
[85]
Martin, S., Hans, U. B., and Martin, S. (1998). Hydrogenation of butane-2,3-dione with heterogeneous cinchona modified platinum catalysts: a combination of an enantioselective reaction and kinetic resolution. Chemical Communications, 9: 1053-1054.
[86]
Hilmia Belgsira, E. M and Légera, J. M (1997). Electrocatalytic oxidation of aliphatic diols Part V. Electro-oxidation of butanediols on platinum based electrodes. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 435 (1-2): 69-75.
[87]
Vanden, T. J., Reed, K. E., and Cronan, J. E. (1991). Lipoic acid metabolism in Escherichia coli: isolation of null mutants defective in lipoic acid biosynthesis, molecular cloning and characterization of the E. coli lip locus, and identification of the lipoylated protein of the glycine cleavage system. Journal of Bacteriology, 173 (20): 6411-6420.
[88]
Giorno, L., Drioli, E., and Carvoli, G. (2001). Study of an enzyme membrane reactor with immobilized fumarase for production of L-malic acid. Biotechnologyand Bioengineering, 72 (1): 77-84.
[89]
Lopez, J. M and Thoms, B (1977). Role of sugar uptake and metabolic intermediates on catabolite repression in Bacillus subtilis. Journal of Bacteriology, 129 (1): 217-224.
[90]
Magee, R. K. N. (1987). The microbial production of 2,3-butanediol. Applied Microbiology, 32 (4): 89-161.
[91]
Johansen, L., Bryn, K., and Stormer, F. C. (1975). Physiological and biochemical role of the butanediol pathway in Aerobacter (Enterobacter) aerogenes. Journal of Bacteriology, 123 (3): 1124-1130.
[92]
Tsau, J. L., Guffanti, A. A., and Montville, T. J. (1992). Conversion of pyruvate to acetoin helps to maintain pH homeostasis in Lactobacillus plantarum. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 58 (3): 891-894.
[93]
Mayer, D., Schlensog, V., and Bock, A. (1995). Identification of the transcriptional activator controlling the butanediol fermentation pathway in Klebsiella terrigena. Journal of Bacteriology, 177 (18): 5261-5269.
[94]
Elena, L., Teru, O., and Simon, M. C. (1997). Characterization of the ftsH gene of Bacillus subtilis. Microbiology, 143 (3): 971-978.
[95]
Stragier, P and Losick, R (1996). Molecular genetics of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. Annual Review of Genetics, 30: 279-341.
[96]
Mansour, S., Bailly, J., and Bonnarme, P. (2009). Investigation of associations of Yarrowia lipolytica, Staphylococcus xylosus, and Lactococcus lactis in culture as a first step in microbial interaction analysis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 75 (20): 6422-6430.
[97]
Ui, S., Mimura, A., and Okuma, M. (1998). The production of D-acetoin by transgenic Escherichia. Coli. Soc. Applied Microbiology, 26 (4): 275-278.
[98]
Royon D., Daz M., Ellenrieder G. (2007). Enzymatic production of biodiesel from cotton seed oil using t-butanol as a solvent. Bioresource Technology, 98 (3): 648-653.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186