Nutritional Ecology of the Southern Green Stink Bug Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on Selected Varieties of Cowpea and Tomato
American Journal of Entomology
Volume 4, Issue 1, March 2020, Pages: 1-9
Received: Nov. 12, 2019; Accepted: Dec. 16, 2019; Published: Jan. 9, 2020
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Authors
Akamu Jude Ewunkem, Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Design, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, United States of America
Henry Osofuhene Sintim, Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Design, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, United States of America
Beatrice Nuck Dingha, Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Design, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, United States of America
Sudan Gyawaly, Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Design, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, United States of America
Louis Ernest Jackai, Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Design, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, United States of America
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Abstract
Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), are two economically important crops in the southern United States. The southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a highly polyphagous pest that attacks a wide range of crops including cowpea and tomato causing a reduction in yield and produce quality. Considering the damage and the associated losses in cowpea and tomato production by this and other pests, as well as the demand for reduced use of pesticides, there is a need to cultivate varieties that are resistant to N. viridula. One key indicator of resistance is host nutritional availability and adequacy. This study evaluated the effect of two selected varieties of cowpea and tomato on the growth and development of N. viridula under laboratory conditions as a first step towards the assessment of nutritional adequacy of both crops. We carried out feeding experiments to compare food utilization and suitability by various life stages of N. viridula. The food substrates tested included fresh immature cowpea pods, fresh cowpea seeds, dry cowpea seeds and newly ripened tomato fruits. Overall, mean nymphal mortality was less when reared on cowpea (63.7±2.9%) than tomato (83.0±1.8%). Nymphs required less time to complete development on cowpea (27.8±2.8d) than on tomato (45.0±3.9d). Fresh body weight at adult emergence was greater on cowpea (132.3±12.1mg) than tomato (83.9±1.5mg). Consumption index (CI) and growth rate (GR) were higher on cowpea (CI: 22.0 ±1.3; GR: 2.1±0.3) than tomato (CI: 8.7±1.4; GR: 0.9±0.1). Collectively, these results suggest that cowpea provided a more suitable nutritional substrate for nymphal development. Many small vegetable growers cultivate both crops.
Keywords
Nutritional Index, Cowpea, Nezara viridula, Tomato
To cite this article
Akamu Jude Ewunkem, Henry Osofuhene Sintim, Beatrice Nuck Dingha, Sudan Gyawaly, Louis Ernest Jackai, Nutritional Ecology of the Southern Green Stink Bug Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on Selected Varieties of Cowpea and Tomato, American Journal of Entomology. Vol. 4, No. 1, 2020, pp. 1-9. doi: 10.11648/j.aje.20200401.11
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Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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