Global Warming and Heat Waves in West-Africa: Impacts on Electricity Consumption in Dakar (Senegal) and Niamey (Niger)
International Journal of Energy and Environmental Science
Volume 2, Issue 1, January 2017, Pages: 16-26
Received: Jan. 11, 2017; Accepted: Jan. 20, 2017; Published: Mar. 3, 2017
Views 1412      Downloads 63
Authors
Ndiaye Aissatou, West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Uses (WASCAL) Master Research Program in Climate Change and Energy (MRP-CCE), Abdou Moumouni University, Niamey, Niger
Adamou Rabani, West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Uses (WASCAL) Master Research Program in Climate Change and Energy (MRP-CCE), Abdou Moumouni University, Niamey, Niger; Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, Abdou Moumouni University, Niamey, Niger
Gueye Moussa, Laboratoire de Physique de l’Atmosphère et de l’Océan-Siméon Fongang (LPAO-SF), Ecole Supérieure Polytechnique, Université Cheikh Anta Diop (UCAD-ESP), Dakar, Senegal
Diedhiou Arona, Laboratoire d’Etude des Transferts en Hydrologique et Environnement (LTHE), University of Grenoble-Alpes, Grenoble, France
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Global warming and related atmospheric temperature rises can impact the electricity sector. The aim of this study is to assess extreme temperatures and heat waves impacts on electricity consumption in West-Africa. To achieve this goal, observational climatic data and long period electricity consumption data collected from Dakar (Senegal) and Niamey (Niger) were used. Obtained results have shown that annual mean temperature enhancement trends during the study period, 1976 to 2011, are similar in both cities. The maximum variations between annual mean temperatures, during 35 years, are around 2.2±0.1°C. The surface temperature seasonal cycle has given two hot periods for each city. The number of hot days and heat waves has increased and their frequency is more pronounced in the last decades. Dakar, the extreme west coastal zone, presents more hot days, which reached 20 days in 2009, and shows greater frequency but has fewer heat waves compared to Niamey in the middle Sahel which has longer lasting heat waves. The electricity consumption trends in both cities match extreme temperatures evolution well. It is low during the cold season but rises during the hot periods. In Niamey, electricity consumption reaches its first peak during its hottest period, March to May. After that, there is a decrease during rainy and cold seasons, which is followed by an enhancement during the second hot period from September to November, with a prominent consumption peak in October. Similar trends were observed for Dakar. A positive correlation has been obtained between the surface temperature and the two cities’ electricity consumption, confirming the extreme weather global impact.
Keywords
Global Warming, Extreme Temperature, Heat Wave, Electricity Consumption, West-Africa
To cite this article
Ndiaye Aissatou, Adamou Rabani, Gueye Moussa, Diedhiou Arona, Global Warming and Heat Waves in West-Africa: Impacts on Electricity Consumption in Dakar (Senegal) and Niamey (Niger), International Journal of Energy and Environmental Science. Vol. 2, No. 1, 2017, pp. 16-26. doi: 10.11648/j.ijees.20170201.13
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Edenhofer, O., Pichs-Madruga, R., Sokona, Y., Farahani, E., Kadner, S., Seyboth, K., Adler, A., Baum, I., Brunner, S., Eickemeier, P., Kriemann, B., Savolainen, J., Schlömer, S., von Stechow, C., Zwickel, T., Minx J. C. (Eds): Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC (2014a), Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. eds. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg3/ Accessed 15 November 2016.
[2]
Pachauri, R. K. and Meyer, L. A. (Eds.) IPCC (2014b), Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 151 pp. http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar5/syr/AR5_SYR_FINAL_All_Topics.pdf. Accessed 15 November 2016.
[3]
Melillo, J. M., Terese, R., and Gary, W. Y. (Eds): Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment. U.S. Global Change Research Program, 841 pp. http://nca2014.globalchange.gov/ Accessed 15 October 2016.
[4]
Gaffen, D. J. and Ross, R. J. (Eds): Increased summertime heat stress in the US. Nature 396, 529-530 (1998).
[5]
US EPA (2016), Understanding the Link Between Climate Change and Extreme Weather https://www.epa.gov/climate-change-science/understanding-link-between-climate-change-and-extreme-weather (accessed 24 November 2016).
[6]
Lowe, D., Ebi, K. L., Forsberg, B.: Heatwave Early Warning Systems and Adaptation Advice to Reduce Human Health Consequences of Heatwaves. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 8 (12), 4623-4648 (2011).
[7]
New, M., Hewitson, B., Stephenson, D. B., Tsiga, A., Kruger, A., Manhique, A., Lajoie, R.: Evidence of trends in daily climate extremes over southern and west Africa. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 111 (14), 1–11 (2006).
[8]
Pachauri, R. K. and Reisinger, A. (Eds.): IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Core Writing Team, pp 104. http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/syr/en/contents.html Accessed 10 November 2016
[9]
World bank (2016), http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.GROW (Accessed 10 November 2016).
[10]
ADB, (2016), Energy and Power in Africa. African Development Bank Group, http://www.afdb.org/en/topics-and-sectors/sectors/energy-power/ (Accessed 22November 2016).
[11]
Amous S.,: Wood energy today for tomorrow (WETT), regional study: The role of woodfuels in Africa. Rivero, S. I. and Flood (Eds) Under the supervision and coordination of Miguel A. T.: Forest Products Division, Forestry Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, http://www.fao.org/docrep/x2740e/x2740e00.htm (Accessed 5 November 2016).
[12]
Sofia Aivalioti, 2015, Electricity sector adaptation to heat waves, Sabin Law of Climate Change, University of Colombia. 51 pp http://web.law.columbia.edu/sites/default/files/microsites/climate-change/white_paper_-_electricity_sector_adaptation_to_heat_waves.pdf Accessed 12 September 2016
[13]
BP (2016), Energy Outlook 2035. (2015), 2035. http://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/energy-economics/energy-outlook-2035/country-and-regional-insights/africa-insights.html Accessed 15 November 2016.
[14]
Wangpattarapong, K., Somchai, M., Nipon K., Wattanapong R.: Y.: The impacts of climatic and economic factors on residential electricity consumption of Bangkok Metropolis. Journal Energy and Buildings 40 (8) 1419-1425 (2008).
[15]
Robinson P. J.: On the Definition of a Heat Wave, Journal of Applied Meteorology, 40 (4), 762-775 (2001).
[16]
Alexander, L. V., Zhang, X., Peterson, T. C., Caesar, J., Gleason, B., Klein Tank, a. M. G., Vazquez-Aguirre, J. L.: Global observed changes in daily climate extremes of temperature and precipitation. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 111 (5), 1–22 (2006).
[17]
Keellings, D., and Waylen, P.: Increased risk of heat waves in Florida : Characterizing changes in bivariate heat wave risk using extreme value analysis. Applied Geography, 46, 90–97 (2014).
[18]
Deo, R. C., Mcalpine, C. A., Syktus, J., Mcgowan, H. A., Phinn, S.: On Australian Heat Waves : Time Series Analysis of Extreme Temperature Events, in Scribd, 626–635 (2005). https://www.scribd.com/document/93473028/Deo-et-al-2007-On-Australian-Heat-Waves-Time-Series-Analysis-of-Extreme-Temperature-Events-in-Australia-1950-2005 Accessed 4 December 2016.
[19]
Gal M., Tebaldi C.: More intense, more frequent, and longer lasting heat waves in the 21st century. Science 13; 305 (5686): 994-997 (2004).
[20]
Division E. S. (2008). Climate, Etreme Heat, and Electricity demand in California, 1834-1844. doi: 10.1175/2007JAMC1480.1.
[21]
Termodina, D., Vale, U., Vale, U., Termodina, D., Vale, U.: Daily Air Temperature and Electricity Load in Spain. Journal of Applied meteorology. 1413–1421. (2001).
[22]
US EPA (2006). Excessive Heat Events Guidebook Accessed 12 November 2015.
[23]
Gerald A. M., Warren M. W., Caspar M. A., Julie M. A., Wigley T. M. L., and Tebaldi C.: Combinations of Natural and Anthropogenic Forcings in Twentieth-Century Climate. Journal of Climate (2004). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<3721:CONAAF>2.0.CO;2.
[24]
Moumouni, Y., Ahmad, S., Baker, R. J. A system dynamics model for energy planning in Niger. International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering. 3 (6), 308–322 (2015).
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186