Global Warming and Heat Waves in West-Africa: Impacts on Electricity Consumption in Dakar (Senegal) and Niamey (Niger)
International Journal of Energy and Environmental Science
Volume 2, Issue 1, January 2017, Pages: 16-26
Received: Jan. 11, 2017;
Accepted: Jan. 20, 2017;
Published: Mar. 3, 2017
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Ndiaye Aissatou, West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Uses (WASCAL) Master Research Program in Climate Change and Energy (MRP-CCE), Abdou Moumouni University, Niamey, Niger
Adamou Rabani, West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Uses (WASCAL) Master Research Program in Climate Change and Energy (MRP-CCE), Abdou Moumouni University, Niamey, Niger; Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, Abdou Moumouni University, Niamey, Niger
Gueye Moussa, Laboratoire de Physique de l’Atmosphère et de l’Océan-Siméon Fongang (LPAO-SF), Ecole Supérieure Polytechnique, Université Cheikh Anta Diop (UCAD-ESP), Dakar, Senegal
Diedhiou Arona, Laboratoire d’Etude des Transferts en Hydrologique et Environnement (LTHE), University of Grenoble-Alpes, Grenoble, France
Global warming and related atmospheric temperature rises can impact the electricity sector. The aim of this study is to assess extreme temperatures and heat waves impacts on electricity consumption in West-Africa. To achieve this goal, observational climatic data and long period electricity consumption data collected from Dakar (Senegal) and Niamey (Niger) were used. Obtained results have shown that annual mean temperature enhancement trends during the study period, 1976 to 2011, are similar in both cities. The maximum variations between annual mean temperatures, during 35 years, are around 2.2±0.1°C. The surface temperature seasonal cycle has given two hot periods for each city. The number of hot days and heat waves has increased and their frequency is more pronounced in the last decades. Dakar, the extreme west coastal zone, presents more hot days, which reached 20 days in 2009, and shows greater frequency but has fewer heat waves compared to Niamey in the middle Sahel which has longer lasting heat waves. The electricity consumption trends in both cities match extreme temperatures evolution well. It is low during the cold season but rises during the hot periods. In Niamey, electricity consumption reaches its first peak during its hottest period, March to May. After that, there is a decrease during rainy and cold seasons, which is followed by an enhancement during the second hot period from September to November, with a prominent consumption peak in October. Similar trends were observed for Dakar. A positive correlation has been obtained between the surface temperature and the two cities’ electricity consumption, confirming the extreme weather global impact.
Global Warming and Heat Waves in West-Africa: Impacts on Electricity Consumption in Dakar (Senegal) and Niamey (Niger), International Journal of Energy and Environmental Science.
Vol. 2, No. 1,
2017, pp. 16-26.
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