Metal Pollution Assessment of the Abandoned Mine Ponds and Ground Water of Parts of the Jos Plateau, North Central Nigeria
International Journal of Energy and Environmental Science
Volume 2, Issue 3, May 2017, Pages: 63-72
Received: Feb. 14, 2017; Accepted: Feb. 23, 2017; Published: Apr. 7, 2017
Views 2280      Downloads 124
Authors
Zang James Gyang Nyam, Department of Geology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
Edafetano Chris Ashano, Department of Geology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
The study area also known as tin city is popular for its historic tin mining activity which left behind several heaps of mine spoil (waste) and abandoned mine ponds which today are used to meet domestic water needs. This study is carried out with a view to determining the level of heavy metal contamination of the mine ponds and ground water of the study area. Twenty one water samples were systematically collected from mine ponds and ground water of the study area including the GPS reading of every point were samples are collected. Concentration of the heavy metals lead, zinc, copper, iron and manganese were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy(ICP OES), while the level of contamination was determined using the contamination factor(CF). The results revealed low contamination (CF<1) for most of the study area (93.33%), moderate contamination (1≤CF<3) for 4.76% of the area with respect to Fe, Pb, and Zinc, and considerable contamination (3≤CF<6) for 1.9% of the area with respect to Pb.
Keywords
Contamination Factor (CF), Mine Spoil, Mine Pond
To cite this article
Zang James Gyang Nyam, Edafetano Chris Ashano, Metal Pollution Assessment of the Abandoned Mine Ponds and Ground Water of Parts of the Jos Plateau, North Central Nigeria, International Journal of Energy and Environmental Science. Vol. 2, No. 3, 2017, pp. 63-72. doi: 10.11648/j.ijees.20170203.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Federal Department of Museum and Monuments (1979). The History of Tin Mining in Nigeria, National Museum, Vol1 pp1- 50, Jos.
[2]
Gyang, J. D. and Ashano, E. C. (2010). Effects of mining on Water Quality and the Environment: A Case Study of Parts of the Jos Plateau, North Central Nigeria. Pacific Journal of Science and Technology. 11, (1) pp 631 – 639.
[3]
Gyang, J. D. and Ashano, E. C. (2010). The Role of Geosciences in Sustainable Development of an Expanding Urban Region: A Case Study of the Jos-Bukuru Urban Region, North Central Nigeria. Pacific journal of Science and Technology 11 (2) pp 664 – 670.
[4]
Hakanson, I. (1980). Ecological Risk Index for Aquatic Pollution Control. A Sedimentological Approach. Water Research, 14; 975-1001.
[5]
Macleod, W. N., Tuner, D. C. and Wright, E. P (1971): The Geology of Jos Plateau. Geological Survey of Nigeria. Bulletin. No. 32, Vol. 1, pp. 12-47.
[6]
Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality (2007). Nigeria Industrial Standard, NIS 554:2007, ICS 13.060.20. Standard Organisation of Nigeria.
[7]
Ogezi, A. E. and Adiuku Brown, N. E. (1987). Trace element and pollution studies on the Zurak and Jos Mining areas of Plateau State, Nigeria. Proc. Nigeria – Japan Conference. pp53 – 56.
[8]
Rahaman, M. A. (1976). Review of the Basement Geology of Southwestern Nigeria. In: C. A. Kogbe(Ed) Geology of Nigeria, Jos Nigeria: Rock view (Nigeria) Limited 2nd edition. Pp 41-58.
[9]
Sadeeq, A. G (2010). Daily Trust Newspaper, June 8, Vol 24 no 46.
[10]
Schoeneich, K. and Aku, I. M. (1998). The study of Degraded mine lands of Jos, Bukuru, Riyom, Barkin Ladi and Bokos areas of Plateau state for Development possibilities. Vol III.
[11]
Sarala T. D, and Uma, M. T. S. R (2013). Metal Pollution Assessment in Ground Water. Bulletin of Environment, Pharmacology and Life Sciences, Vol 2 (12) November: 122-129.
[12]
Turner, D. C. (1976) Structure and Petrology of the Younger Granite Ring Complexes. In: C. A. Kogbe(Ed) Geology of Nigeria, Lagos, Nigeria: Elizabethan Publishing Company. Pp 143-159.
[13]
W.H.O. (1984). Guidelines of drinking water Quality Vol I. Recommendations Geneva, World Health Organisation.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186