Groundwater Assessment and Its Intrinsic Vulnerability Studies Using Aquifer Vulnerability Index and GOD Methods
International Journal of Energy and Environmental Science
Volume 2, Issue 5, September 2017, Pages: 103-116
Received: Aug. 24, 2017; Accepted: Sep. 18, 2017; Published: Sep. 28, 2017
Views 1718      Downloads 100
Authors
Olumuyiwa Olusola Falowo, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Nigeria
Yemisi Akindureni, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Nigeria
Olajumoke Ojo, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Groundwater assessment and aquifer/water bearing formation vulnerability studies were carried out in Ose and Owo Local Government areas of Ondo State, Southwestern Nigeria. The groundwater evaluation involved integrated electrical resistivity (vertical electrical sounding), very low frequency electromagnetic, and borehole logging. Aquifer vulnerability assessment was done using Aquifer vulnerability Index (AVI) and GOD approaches. Fifty two (52) vertical electrical soundings (VES) data were acquired with Schlumberger array using current electrode separation (AB/2) of 1 to 225 m. The acquired VES data were qualitatively interpreted to determine the geoelectric parameters (layer resistivity and thickness). The geoelectric sections revealed the lithological sequence comprising topsoil, weathered layer, partly weathered/fractured basement and fresh basement. The most occurring curve types identified are H and KH with % frequency of 30 and 26.9 respectively. The lineament density and interception maps show a low spatial variation as the lineaments are generally sparse in the study area especially in Ose local government area; while Owo area shows a low – moderate variation. The major water bearing units are confined/unconfined fracture basement and weathered layer composing of clay/sandy clay, clay sand and sand aquifers (found in the southern part of the study area with thickness generally above 20 m and could be up to 60 m). However, the fracture basement aquifer is widespread in Owo area with thickness that could up to 30 m. The depth to these water bearing geological formation is between 1.2 m and 15.9 m. The AVI characterized the study area into “extremely low – High vulnerability” with predominant very high vulnerability values. The GOD vulnerability model depicts that the study area is characterized by three vulnerability zones, which are low, moderate and high vulnerable zones. According to the model, about 5% of the area is highly vulnerable while about 45% is of moderate rating, and 50% low vulnerable rating. It is highly recommended that the least vulnerable zone should be the primary target for future groundwater development in the area in order to ensure continuous supply of safe and potable groundwater for human consumption; and more importantly, location of septic tanks, petroleum storage tanks, shallow subsurface piping utilities and other contaminant facilities should be confined to low vulnerable zones.
Keywords
GOD, AVI, Vulnerability, Groundwater, Contamination, Borehole Logging
To cite this article
Olumuyiwa Olusola Falowo, Yemisi Akindureni, Olajumoke Ojo, Groundwater Assessment and Its Intrinsic Vulnerability Studies Using Aquifer Vulnerability Index and GOD Methods, International Journal of Energy and Environmental Science. Vol. 2, No. 5, 2017, pp. 103-116. doi: 10.11648/j.ijees.20170205.13
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
J. Delleur, “The handbook of groundwater engineering” CRC Press LLC, USA, 1999.
[2]
O. O. Falowo and E. G. Imeokparia, “Hydrogeological studies for groundwater resource and its vulnerability to contamination in owo, southwestern Nigeria.” International Journal of Science and Research. 2015, volume 4, Issue 12, pp. 1331-1344.
[3]
N. P. Iloeje, “A new geography of Nigeria” Longman Group Ltd; 1981.
[4]
O. Koefoed, “Geosounding principles 1. resistivity measurements” Elsevier Scientific Publishing, Amsterdam, Netherlands. 1979, pp. 275.
[5]
A. A. R. Zohdy, “The auxiliary point method of electrical sounding interpretation and its relationship to Dar Zarrouk parameters”. Geophysics, 1965, 30: 644-650.
[6]
G. V. Keller and F. C. Frishchnecht, “Electrical methods in geophysical prospecting.” Pergamon Press, New York, 1966, pp. 96.
[7]
B. P. A. Vander-Velpen, “RESIST version 1.0.” M. Sc. Research Project. ITC: Delft Netherlands, 1988.
[8]
R. W. Buddemeier, J. A Schloss, “Groundwater storage and flow,” http://www.kgs.Ukans.edu/Hightplains/atlas//apgngw.htm, 2000.
[9]
D. Van Stempvoort, L. Ewert, L. Wassenaar, “Aquifer vulnerability index (AVI): A GIS compatible method for groundwater vulnerability mapping.” Can Water Res J, 1993, 18: 25-37.
[10]
R. A. Freeze and J. A. Cherry, “Groundwater Prentice-Hall”: Englewood, NJ. 1979, pp 604.
[11]
G. P. Kruseman and N. A. De Ridder, “Analysis and evaluation of pumping test data.” International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement, Publication no. 47, 2nd ed., Wageningen, Netherlands, 1990.
[12]
S. S. D. Foster, “Fundamental concepts in aquifer vulnerability pollution risk and protection strategy.” in Vulnerability of soil and groundwater to pollution: Proceedings and information. W. van Duijvenboodennd H. G. van Waegeningh (editors). TNO Committee on Hydrological Research, The Hague, 1987, 69-86.
[13]
S. Khemiri, A. Khnissi, M. B. Alaya, S. Saidi, F. Zargouni, “Using GIS for the comparison of intrinsic parametric methods assessment of groundwater vulnerability to pollution in Scenarios of Semi-Arid Climate.” The case of Foussama Groundwater in the Central of Tunisia. Journal of water resources and protection, 2013, 5: 835-845.
[14]
V. Murat, D. Paradis, M. M. Savard, M. Nastev, E. Bourque, A. Hamel, R. Lefebvre and R. Martel, “Vulnérabilité à la nappe des aquifères fractures du Sud-ouest du Québec- Evaluation par les methods DRASTIC et GOD.” Current Research, No. 2003-D3, 2003; 14p.
[15]
D. Mishra, S. Hira and M. B. S. Rao, “Remote sensing and geoelectrical investigation for groundwater in south-central part of Lalitpur District, Utar Pradesh.” Journal Association of Exploration Geophysics. 1990, Vol. 11 (1), pp. 17-28.
[16]
A. E. Bala, O. Batelaan and de Smedt “Using Landsat 5 imagery in the assessment of groundwater resources in the crystalline rocks around Dutsin-Ma, northwestern Nigeria.” Journal of Mining and Geology. 2000, Vol. 36 (1), pp. 85-92.
[17]
W. H. Barker, “Multispectral scanner. In: Janssen, L. L. F. and Huurneman, G. C. (eds), Principles of remote sensing, ITC Educational Textbook Series, 2001, pp. 71-82.
[18]
K. A Mogaji, O. S. Aboyeji, and G. O. Omosuyi, “Mapping of lineaments for groundwater targeting in the basement complex region of Ondo State, Nigeria, using remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques.” International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, 2011, Vol. 3 (7), pp. 150-160.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186