Assessment of Foreign Material Load in the Management of Faecal Sludge in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana
International Journal of Energy and Environmental Science
Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2018, Pages: 27-36
Received: Jan. 29, 2018;
Accepted: Feb. 11, 2018;
Published: Mar. 6, 2018
Views 1944 Downloads 144
Issahaku Ahmed, Sewerage Systems Ghana Ltd., Accra, Ghana
Ama Mbeaba Quarshie, Department of Basic & Applied Biology, University of Energy and Natural Resources, Sunyani, Ghana
Dennis Ofori-Amanfo, Sewerage Systems Ghana Ltd., Accra, Ghana
Florence Cobbold, Sewerage Systems Ghana Ltd., Accra, Ghana
Eric Simon Amofa-Sarkodie, Sewerage Systems Ghana Ltd., Accra, Ghana
Esi Awuah, Department of Civil Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
Follow on us
Faecal sludge management has been a burden for most waste managers particularly in developing countries; yet a sure way of preventing the continuous disposal of this waste into drains, bushes water bodies and the environs in general has been by treatment. The introduction of a new treatment plant with the UASB technology in the management process of faecal sludge has been much welcomed as an improved technology for solving the treatment problems of the waste; but this technology is not without some challenges. It has no design criteria for the treatment of other wastes that it screens from faecal sludge. This paper assessed the foreign material load in faecal sludge dislodged at the treatment plant at the Lavender hill a suburb of the Greater Accra region of Ghana. The foreign materials in the faecal sludge were categorized into their material composition or items that were relatively easy to recognized. The characteristic components were Textile/Fabric, Condoms, Gravels, Metal, Glass, Sanitary pads, Rubber/Plastics and Others’ (cotton wool, mobile phones, broom sticks, paper wrappers, cartons, wallets, ID cards, money, feotus). The faecal sludge of Greater Accra region of Ghana contains about 0.24kg of foreign materials per cubic metre of the faecal sludge. Of this composition, the highest contribution was seen to have come from plastics contributing about 36.80%. Sanitary pads, textiles, ‘others’ category, condoms, stones, metals and glasses respectively contributing 29.89%,18.55%, 7.47%, 3.74%, 2.52%, 0.06% and 0.16%. The order of the load of the foreign materials were seen to be in the order of Plastics/Rubbers > Sanitary pads >Textiles/Fabrics > Others > Condoms > Gravels > Glass > Metals. These wastes pose mechanical and technical challenges to the treatment plant. Inasmuch as responsible environmental behavior through public sensitization on proper use of pit latrines in particular and the need for their redesign to make them almost impossible for use as dumping pits for other wastes were recommended, the utilization of some of these foreign materials that have the potential to be reused like the money, memory chips or mobile phones could potentially be a source of spread for disease like cholera and diarrhea as the FS contains a lot of pathogenic bacteria.
Faecal Sludge, Latrines, UASB Technology, Characterization, Foreign Material Load
To cite this article
Ama Mbeaba Quarshie,
Eric Simon Amofa-Sarkodie,
Assessment of Foreign Material Load in the Management of Faecal Sludge in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana, International Journal of Energy and Environmental Science.
Vol. 3, No. 1,
2018, pp. 27-36.
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
UNICEF & World Health Organization (2008), Progress on drinking water and sanitation special focus on sanitation, Geneva Switzerland.
UNICEF & World Health Organization (2012). Progress on drinking water and sanitation: future prospects for food and feed security. 2012 update; 2012. p. 66.van Huis A, Van Itterbeeck J, Klunder H Mertens E, Halloran A, Muir G, et al. Edibleinsects: Rome: FAO; 2013. p. 201
Daniele (2016), As Rio bay waters show; we badly need innovation in treating human wastes Tufts University, Retrieved from [http//theconversation.com/profiles/daniele-lantagne-287703].
UNEP/GEF/KALMAR Högskola, Invemar, (2006), Global International Water Assessment(GIWA), Caribbean Sea/Colombia & Venezuela, Central America & Mexico GIWA Regional Assessment 3b, 3c, Kalmar Sweden.
Awuah E. and Abrokwa K. A. 33rd WEDC International Conference, Accra Ghana 2008; Access to sanitation and safe water: Global partnership and local action. Performance evaluation of the UASB Sewage treatment plant at James Town (Mudor) Accra.
Doulaye Koné (2012), Fecal Sludge Management in Africa and Asia. Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) Retrivedfrom[https://saniblog.org/wp-content/2012/12/10-country-FSM-final-Report_september-12-1-2-copy.pdf]
Doku A. I. (2003) The potential for the use of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor for the treatment of faecal sludges in Ghana (BSc (Kumasi), MSc (Leeds), MASc (Toronto), PhD (Leeds).
UNICEF (2016), Assessment of waste water treatment plants in Ghana by civil engineering Department KNUST.
Brook L. (2012), Rapid Evidence Review Littering Behaviour and anti-litter Policies, Zero waste Scotland commission report. Scotland http://www.zerowastescotland.org.uk/sites/files/zws/
Boot N. L. D. AND SCOTT R. E. (2008), Faecal sludge management in Accra, Ghana: strengthening Links in the chain. In: Access to sanitation and safe water: Global partnerships and local actions, 33rd we Dc international conference, Accra, Ghana.
Cofie O, Kone D, Rothenberger S, Moser D, Zubruegg C. (2009), Co-composting of faecal and organic solid waste for agriculture: process dynamics. Water Res2009; 43 (18): 4665–75.
Kuffour A. R, Awuah E, Anyemedu F. O. K, Strauss M, Koné D, Cofie O. (2009), Effect of using different particle sizes of sand as filter media for dewatering faecal sludge. Desalination; 248 (1–3): 308–14.
Owusu, C. (2013), Public - private partnership in faecal sludge collection and treatment in Ashanti region of Ghana Unpublished thesis (Msc.) Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana
Strande A. L, Ronteltap M, Brdjanovic D. (2014), Faecal Sludge Management; Systems Approach For Implementation And Operation. Published by IWA Publishing Alliance House 12 Caxton Street London SW1H 0QS, UK.
Ahamada Zziwa, Isa Kabenge, Henry Kayondo, Yvonne Lugali, Robert K. Kambugu, Joshua Wanyama (2016) Fractional Content Of Non-Feacal Matter And Its Contribution To Filling Rates of Pit Latrines in Kampala Slums Global Journal of Engineering Science and Research Management http: // www.gjesrm.com
UNICEF-Ghana (2015). Water, sanitation and hygiene, the case for support, (December), 1-14.
UNICEF, Uni, Noorani. (2016). Strategy for Water, Sanitation and Hygiene. Retrieved from https://www.unicef.org/wash/files/UNICEF_strategy_for_WASH_2016_2030.PDF