In this paper, the progresses of understanding of the enzymes application in hydrocarbon production from extensive experimental and field studies are reviewed. Enzyme enhanced oil recovery is an emerging method of improving oil production in an environmentally friendly way, but the mechanisms underlying this process are not clearly understood. Also, detailed studies on enzyme enhanced oil recovery applications are not readily available. From the comprehensive review carried out in this study, we observed that most of the works done on enzyme enhanced oil recovery processes were not properly detailed and the different experimental procedures adopted makes coherent understanding of the process difficult. Evident however in all the studies from the laboratory experiments and field applications, is the capacity of enzyme to improve oil production from both sandstone and carbonate rocks. Also, we have identified and highlighted the physicochemical properties of the enzymes commonly used for enhanced oil recovery and their effects on oil recovery process in order to improve the understanding of their applicability in relevant hydrocarbon reservoir. Furthermore, the challenges and future research directions for enzyme enhanced oil recovery applications have been pinpointed in this study. Having unfold the enhanced oil recovery potential of enzyme, a clarion call is thereby made for deeper studies on this emerging method of improving oil production. This study is relevant to the design and application of enzyme enhanced oil recovery process in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs.
Tinuola Hannah Udoh,
Potentials of Enzyme Enhanced Oil Recovery: A Review, Petroleum Science and Engineering.
Vol. 4, No. 2,
2020, pp. 51-63.
Gray, John L. Analysis of eeor using greenzyme for prue ranch (anacacho) oilfield, hitzfelder. Jumpstart Energy Services, LLC (Houston, TX), 30 May 2007.
Nasiri, Hamidreza; Spildo, Kristine and Skauge, Arne. Use of enzymes to improve water- flood performance. In International Symposium of the Society of Core Analysts held in Noordwijk, The Netherlands 27-30 September, 2009, pages 27–30, 2009.
Udoh, Tinuola; Akanji, Lateef and Vinogradov, Jan. Experimental investigation of potential of combined controlled salinity and bio-surfactant csbs in enhanced oil recovery eor processes. In Nigeria Annual International Conference and Exhibition held in Lagos, Nigeria. Society of Petroleum Engineers, 6-8 August 2018.
Rahayyem, Maher; Mostaghimi, Peyman; Alzahid, Yara A; Halim, Amalia; Evangelista, Lucas and Armstrong, Ryan T. Enzyme enhanced oil recovery eeor: A microfluidics approach. In SPE Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference. Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2019.
Udoh, Tinuola and Vinogradov, Jan. Effects of temperature on crude-oil-rock-brine inter- actions during controlled salinity biosurfactant flooding. In Nigeria Annual International Conference and Exhibition held in Lagos, Nigeria. Society of Petroleum Engineers., 5-7 August 2019. doi: 10.2118/198761-MS.
Ott, William Kenneth; Nyo, Thu; Aung, Win Nyunt and Khaing, Aung Thet. Eeor success in mann field, myanmar. In SPE Enhanced Oil Recovery Conference. Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2011.
Kuznetsov, Sergey Ivanovich and Oppenheimer, Carl H. The microflora of lakes and its geochemical activity. University of Texas Press, 2012.
Robinson, Peter K. Enzymes: principles and biotechnological applications. Essays in Biochemistry, Portland Press Limited, 59: 1–41, 2015. doi: 10.1042/BSE0590001.
Sarney, Douglas B and Vulfson, Evgeny N. Application of enzymes to the synthesis of surfactants. Trends in biotechnology, 13 (5): 164–172, 1995.
Xia, Jiding. Protein-Based Surfactants: Synthesis: Physicochemical Properties, and Applications, volume 101. CRC Press, 2001.
Hlady, Vladimir; Buijs, Jos and Jennissen, Herbert P. Methods for studying protein adsorption. Methods in enzymology, 309: 402–429, 1999.
Klibanov, Alexander M. Enzymatic catalysis in anhydrous organic solvents. Trends in Bio- chemical Sciences, 14 (4): 141–144, 1989. ISSN 0968-0004. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/0968-0004(89)90146-1. URL http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0968000489901461.
Piazza, Roberto. Interactions and phase transitions in protein solutions. Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science, 5 (12): 38–43, 2000. ISSN 1359-0294. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1359-0294(00)00034-0. URL http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1359029400000340.
Rabe, Michael; Verdes, Dorinel and Seeger, Stefan. Understanding protein adsorption phenomena at solid surfaces. Advances in colloid and interface science, 162 (1): 87–106, 2011.
Li, Shuang; Yang, Xiaofeng; Yang, Shuai; Zhu, Muzi and Wang, Xiaoning. Technology prospecting on enzymes: application, marketing and engineering. Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal, 2 (3): e201209017, 2012. ISSN 2001-0370. doi: https://doi.org/10.5936/csbj.201209017. URL http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2001037014600957.
Jegannathan, Kenthorai Raman and Nielsen, Per Henning. Environmental assessment of enzyme use in industrial production a literature review. Journal of Cleaner Production, 42 (Supplement C): 228–240, 2013. ISSN 0959-6526. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.11.005. URL http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S095965261200594X.
Feng, Qing-xian; Ni, Fangtian; Shao, Dingbo; Ma, Xian-ping; Qin, BaoYan; Zhou, Li-hong and Ji, Chao-feng. Eor pilot tests with modified enzyme in china. In EUROPEC/EAGE Conference and Exhibition. Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2007.
McNeill, Gerald P.; Shimizu, Shoichi and Yamane, Tsuneo. High-yield enzymatic glycerolysis of fats and oils. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 68 (1): 1–5, 1991.
Riva, Sergio; Chopineau, Joel; Kieboom, A. P. G. and Alexander M Klibanov. Protease-catalyzed regioselective esterification of sugars and related compounds in anhydrous dimethylformamide. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 110 (2): 584–589, 1988.
Fregapane, Giuseppe; Sarney, Douglas B. and Vulfson, Evgeny N. Enzymic solvent-free synthesis of sugar acetal fatty acid esters. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 13 (10): 796–800, 1991. ISSN 0141-0229. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/0141-0229(91)90062-F. URL http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/014102299190062F.
Nagao, Akihiko and Kito, Makoto. Synthesis of o-acyl-l-homoserine by lipase. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 66 (5): 710–713, 1989.
Nieuwenhuyzen, Willem Van. The industrial uses of special lecithins: a review. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 58 (10): 886–888, 1981.
Ljunger, Gudrun; Adlercreutz, Patrick and Mattiasson, Bo. Enzymatic synthesis of octyl-β-glucoside in octanol at controlled water activity. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 16 (9): 751–755, 1994. ISSN 0141-0229. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/0141-0229(94)90031-0. URL http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0141022994900310.
Myers, Drew. Surfaces, Interfaces, and Colloids: Principles and Applications, Second Edition. Wiley-Vch New York etc., 1999.
Green, D. W. and Willhite, G. P. Enhanced oil recovery, volume 6. Society of Petroleum Engineers, 1998.
Udoh, Tinuola and Vinogradov, Jan. Experimental investigations of behaviour of biosur- factants in brine solutions relevant to hydrocarbon reservoirs. Colloids and Interfaces, 3 (1): 24, 2019. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids3010024.
Jabbar, Muhammad; Azrak, Omar; Berthier, Maxime; Blondeau, Christophe and Al-Amrie, Omar. Application of enzyme eor in a mature uae offshore carbonate oil field. In Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference. Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2015.
Sheng, J. J. Modern Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery. Gulf Professional Publishing, Burlington, MA 01803, USA, 2011. Cited by: 58.
Somasundaran, P. and Krishnakumar, S. Adsorption of surfactants and polymers at the solid-liquid interface. Colloids and Surfaces A: physicochemical and engineering aspects, 123: 491–513, 1997.
Norde, Willem. Driving forces for protein adsorption at solid surfaces. In Macromolecular Symposia, volume 103, pages 5–18. Wiley Online Library, 1996.
Nakanishi, Kazuhiro; Sakiyama, Takaharu and Imamura, Koreyoshi. On the adsorption of proteins on solid surfaces, a common but very complicated phenomenon. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 91 (3): 233–244, 2001.
Koutsoukos, P. G.; Norde, W. and Lyklema, J. Protein adsorption on hematite (α-fe2o3) surfaces. Journal of colloid and interface science, 95 (2): 385–397, 1983.
Shibata, Caroline T. and Lenhoff, Abraham M. Tirf of salt and surface effects on protein adsorption: I. equilibrium. Journal of colloid and interface science, 148 (2): 469–484, 1992.
Norde, Willem and Anusiem, Alphonso CI. Adsorption, desorption and re-adsorption of proteins on solid surfaces. Colloids and Surfaces, 66 (1): 73–80, 1992.
Alanis, Luque; AlSofi, A. M.; Wang, J.; Han, M. Toward an alternative bio-based sp flooding technology: I. biosurfactant evaluation. In SPE Asia Pacific Enhanced Oil Recovery Conference. Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2015.
Dietschweiler, Coni and Sander, Michael. Protein adsorption at solid surfaces. 2007.
Udoh, Tinuola H. Comparative study on adsorption of biologically generated surface active agents on carbonate and sandstone rock surfaces. International Journal of Current Research and Academic Review, 7 (2): 21–36, February 2019. doi: https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcrar.2019.702.004. URL http://www.ijcrar.com.
Anderson, William G. Wettability literature survey- part 2: Wettability measurement. Journal of petroleum technology, 38 (11): 1125–1143, 1986. doi: 10.2118/13933-PA.
Abdallah, Wael; Buckley, Jill S.; Carnegie, Andrew; Edwards, John; Herold, Bernd; Fordham, Edmund; Graue, Arne; Habashy, Tarek; Seleznev, Nikita; Signer, Claude and Ziauddin, Murtaza. Fundamentals of wettability. Oilfield Review, page 4461., 2007.
Treiber L. E and Owens, W. W. A laboratory evaluation of the wettability of fifty oil-producing reservoirs. Society of petroleum engineers journal, 12 (06): 531–540, 1972.
Anderson, William G. Wettability literature survey part 5: the effects of wettability on relative permeability. Journal of Petroleum Technology, 39 (11): 1–453, 1987.
Smith, James T. and Cobb, William M. Waterflooding. Midwest Office of the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council, 1997.
Anderson, William G. Wettability literature survey-part 1: rock/oil/brine interactions and the effects of core handling on wettability. Journal of petroleum technology, 38 (10): 1–125, 1986.
Rosen, Milton J. Adsorption of surface-active agents at interfaces: the electrical double layer. Surfactants and Interfacial Phenomena, Third Edition, pages 34–104, 2004.
RezaeiDoust, A.; Puntervold, T.; Strand, S. and Austad, T. Smart water as wettability modifier in carbonate and sandstone: A discussion of similarities/differences in the chemical mechanisms. Energy & fuels, 23 (9): 4479–4485, 2009.
Hiorth, A.; Cathles, L. M.; Kolnes, J.; Vikane, O.; Lohne, A. and Madland, M. V. Chemical modelling of wettability change in carbonate rocks. In 10th Wettability Conference, Abu Dhabi, UAE, pages 1–9, 2008.
Buckley, J. S. and Morrow, N. R. Characterization of crude oil wetting behavior by adhesion tests. In SPE/DOE Enhanced Oil Recovery Symposium. Society of Petroleum Engineers, 1990.
Vo, Loan T.; Gupta, Robin and Hehmeyer, Owen J. Ion chromatography analysis of advanced ion management carbonate coreflood experiments. In Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Conference and Exhibition. Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2012.
Al-Attar, Hazim H.; Mahmoud, Mohamed Y.; Zekri, Abdulrazag Y.; Almehaideb, Reyadh and Ghannam, Mamdouh. Low-salinity flooding in a selected carbonate reservoir: experimental approach. Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology, 3 (2): 139–149, Jun 2013. ISSN 2190-0566. doi: 10.1007/s13202-013-0052-3. URL https://doi.org/10.1007/s13202-013-0052-3.
Wang, Yuan; Kantzas, Apostolos; Li, Binfei; Li, Zhaomin; Wang, Qing and Mingchen Zhao. New agent for formation-damage mitigation in heavy-oil reservoir: Mechanism and ap- plication. In SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control held in Lafayette, Louisiana, U.S.A., 1315 February, 2008. Society of Petroleum Engi- neers, 2008.
He, Liu and Zhang, Zhonghong. Biology enzyme eor for low permeability reservoirs. In SPE Enhanced Oil Recovery Conference. Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2011.
Khusainova, Alsu; Shapiro, Alexander A.; Stenby, Erling H. and Woodley, John M. Wettability improvement with enzymes: Application to enhanced oil recovery under conditions of the North Sea reservoirs. Graduate Schools Yearbook, page 125, 2013.
Udoh, Tinuola and Vinogradov, Jan. A synergy between controlled salinity brine and bio- surfactant flooding for improved oil recovery: An experimental investigation based on zeta potential and interfacial tension measurements. International Journal of Geophysics, 2019: 15, 2019. doi: https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/2495614.
Wang, Wu. Experimental study of oil displacement by the bio-enzyme at the third type reservoirs of sabei blocks. In Power and Energy Engineering Conference (APPEEC), 2010 Asia-Pacific, pages 1–4. IEEE, 2010.
Buckley, Jill S. Mechanisms and consequences of wettability alteration by crude oils. PhD thesis, Heriot-Watt University, 1996.
Norde, Willem. Adsorption of proteins from solution at the solid-liquid interface. Advances in colloid and interface science, 25: 267–340, 1986.
Herrero, A. M.; Carmona, P. B.; Pintado, T.; Jime´nez-Colmenero, F. and Ru´ız-Capillas, C. Infrared spectroscopic analysis of structural features and interactions in olive oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with soy protein. Food Research International, 44 (1): 360–366, 2011.
Eskandari, Somayeh; Rashedi, Hamid; Ziaie-Shirkolaee, Yaser; Mazaheri-Assadi, Mahnaz; Jamshidi, Esmail and Bonakdarpour, Babak. Evaluation of oil recovery by rhamnolipid produced with isolated strain from iranian oil wells. Annals of microbiology, 59 (3): 573–577, 2009.
Penfold, Jeffrey; Thomas, Robert K. and Shen, Hsin-Hui. Adsorption and self-assembly of biosurfactants studied by neutron reflectivity and small angle neutron scattering: glycolipids, lipopeptides and proteins. Soft Matter, 8 (3): 578–591, 2012.
Khusainova, Alsu; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Pedersen, Hanne Høst; Woodley, John M. and Shapiro, Alexander. Study of wettability of calcite surfaces using oil–brine–enzyme systems for enhanced oil recovery applications. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 127: 53–64, 2015.
Whittinghill, J. M.; Norton, J. and Proctor, A. A fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study of the effect of temperature on soy lecithin-stabilized emulsions. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 76 (12): 1393–1398, 1999.
Al-Wahaibi, Yahya; Joshi, Sanket; Al-Bahry, Saif; Elshafie, Abdulkadir; Al-Bemani, Ali and Shibulal, Biji. Biosurfactant production by bacillus subtilis b30 and its application in enhancing oil recovery. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 114: 324–333, 2014.
Arakawa, Tsutomu and Timasheff, Serge N. Mechanism of protein salting in and salting out by divalent cation salts: balance between hydration and salt binding. Biochemistry, 23 (25): 5912–5923, 1984.
Norde, W. and Lyklema, J. The adsorption of human plasma albumin and bovine pancreas ribonuclease at negatively charged polystyrene surfaces: I. adsorption isotherms. effects of charge, ionic strength, and temperature. J. Colloid Interface Sci., 66: 257, 1978.
Wahlgren, Marie and Arnebrant, Thomas. Protein adsorption to solid surfaces. Trends in biotechnology, 9 (1): 201–208, 1991.
Mitra, S. P. and Chattoraj, D. K. Some thermodynamic aspects of expanded and; condensed films of bsa adsorbed at the alumina-water interface. Indian J Biochem Biophys., 15: 147–152, 1978.
Hagiwara, Tomoaki; Suzuki, Madoka; Hasegawa, Yuki; Isago, Saki; Watanabe, Hisahiko and Sakiyama, Takaharu. Temperature effect on pink shrimp (pandalus eous) protein adsorption onto a stainless steel surface. Food Science and Technology Research, 21 (3): 341–345, 2015.
Maleki, M. S.; Moradi, O. and Tahmasebi, S. Adsorption of albumin by gold nanoparticles: equilibrium and thermodynamics studies. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 2012.
Dillman, W. J and Miller, I. F. On the adsorption of serum proteins on polymer membrane surfaces. J. Colloid Interface Sci, 44: 221–241, 1973.
Addesso, Anne and Lund, Daryl. Influence of solid surface energy on protein adsorption. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 21 (4): 319–333, 1997.
Buckley, J. S.; Takamura, K. and Morrow, N. R. Influence of electrical surface charges on the wetting properties of crude oils. SPE Reservoir Engineering, 4 (03): 332–340, 1989.
Austad, Tor; RezaeiDoust, Alireza and Puntervold, Tina. Chemical mechanism of low salinity water flooding in sandstone reservoirs. /1/1/2010. J2: SPE-129767-MS.
Salahshoor, S.; Fahes, M. and Teodoriu, C. A review on the effect of confinement on phase behavior in tight formations. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, 51: 89–103, 2018.
Salahshoor, Shadi; Gomez, Sergio and Fahes, Mashhad. Experimental investigation on the application of biological enzymes for eor in shale formations. Number 1117, Denver, Colorado, USA, 22-24 July 2019. Unconventional Resources Technology Conference (URTEC). doi: 10.15530/urtec-2019-1117.
Jain, Tarang and Sharma, Akash. New frontiers in eor methodologies by application of enzymes. In SPE EOR Conference at Oil and Gas West Asia. Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2012.