Phytochemical and Pharmacological Uses of Acacia Nilotica - A Review
International Journal of Bioorganic Chemistry
Volume 3, Issue 2, December 2018, Pages: 6-10
Received: Dec. 26, 2018; Accepted: Jan. 20, 2019; Published: Feb. 18, 2019
Views 327      Downloads 86
Author
Rasha Jame, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tabuk University, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia; Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Education, Dalanj University, Dalanj, Sudan
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
The present review aims to provide up-to-date a summary of the phytochemical and pharmacological usage of Acacia nilotica tree. Acacia nilotica is an important multipurpose medicinal plant; it was used for the treatment of various diseases and is widely distributed throughout the tropical and sub-tropical regions. It belongs to a family: Fabaceae; genus: Acacia and spices: nilotica. The different parts of Acacia nilotica like roots, leaves, bark, gum, flowers and pods were recognized as a component of traditional medicine in different countries. Acacia nilotica is commonly known as ‘Algarad' in Sudan and have long been used for the treatment of some diseases from the time immemorial. An exhaustive survey of literature has revealed that the phytochemical of different extracts of acacia were evaluated for phenolic, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, fatty acids, anthraquinones, saponins, steroids, triterpenoids protein and polysaccharides. The qualitative phytochemical studies of different part of plant extract showed that, the bark contains terpenoids, tannins, alkaloids, saponins, sterols and glycosides; leaves contain tannins, alkaloids, sterols, saponins, cardiac glycosides and flavonoids; roots contain saponins, flavonoids, terpenes, tannins, sterols, phenols, alkaloids, and anthraquinones; pods contain alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, carbohydrate, and sterol; Flowers showed presence of phenolic compound. The pharmacological studies reviewed many significant medicinal usages of the different parts extract of the Acacia Nilotica tree as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antidiarrhoeal, antihypertensive and antispasmodic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiplasmodial, analgesic, antipyretic, antiviral, antiplatelet aggregatory and anticancer activities. Through this review I am tried to explore the therapeutic potential of A. nilotica and thus may be a promising route for a new, safe, inexpensive, biodegradable and renewable source of natural drugs with high therapeutic index.
Keywords
Acacia Nilotica, Phytochemical, Pharmacological Uses
To cite this article
Rasha Jame, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Uses of Acacia Nilotica - A Review, International Journal of Bioorganic Chemistry. Vol. 3, No. 2, 2018, pp. 6-10. doi: 10.11648/j.ijbc.20180302.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Said HM. Hamdard Pharmacopeia of Eastern Medicine. Ed 2, New Delhi Sri Satguru publications, 1997, 353.
[2]
M. U. Z. N. Farzana, I. Al Tharique, Arshiya sultana, A review of ethnomedicine, phytochemical and pharmacological activities of Acacia nilotica (Linn) willd, Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2014, 3 (1), 84-90.
[3]
Abhishek Raj, Veijaneng haokip, Subhadra Chandrawanshi, Acacia nilotica: a multipurpose tree and source of Indian gum Arabic, South Indian Journal of Biological Sciences 2015, 1 (2), 66-69.
[4]
Osman M. Abd El Nabi, Emil C. Reisinger, Franz F. Reinthaler, Franz Still, Ute Eibel, and Guenter J. Krejs, Antimicrobial activity of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Del. var. nilotica (Mimosaceae), Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 1992, 37, 77-79.
[5]
R. K. Verma, taxonomical study of Acacia nilotica (linn) wild (a dye yielding plant) in Churu district, World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2017, 6 (10), 1347-1354.
[6]
Kaushal K. Review of Pharmacological Activities of Acacia nilotica (Linn) willd W. S. R to Osteoporosis. J Adv Res Ayur Yoga Unani Sidd Homeo, 2017, 4 (1&2), 3-7.
[7]
Gilani AH, Shaheen F, Zaman M, Janbaz KH, Shah BH, Akhtar MS. Studies on antihypertensive and antispasmodic activities of methanol extract of Acacia nilotica pods. Phytotherapy Research, 1999, 13, 665-669.
[8]
Alli L. A., Adesokan A. A., Salawu O. A., Akanji M. A. and Tijani A. Y., Anti-plasmodial activity of aqueous root extract of Acacia nilotica, African Journal of Biochemistry Research, 2011, 5 (7), 214-219.
[9]
Lukman A. Ali, Mikhail O. Nafiu, Abdulfatai A. Adesokan, Musbau A. Akanji, Adeniyi Y. Tijani and Oluwakanyinsola A. Salawu, Antipyretic and analgesics activities of aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica root, Biokemistri, 2014, 26 (2), 55-62.
[10]
Kalaivani T, Mathew L., Free radical scavenging activity from leaves of Acacia nilotica (L.) Wil. Ex Delile, an Indian medicinal tree, Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2010, 48, 298-305.
[11]
Singh R. and Singh R.: Screening of some plant extract for antiviral properties, Technology (Sindri) 1972, 9 (4), 415-416.
[12]
Meena PD, Kaushik P, Shukla S, Soni AK, Kumar M, Kumar A., anticancer and antimutagenic properties of Acacia nilotica (Linn.) on 7,12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene-induced skin papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice, Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 2006, 7 (4), 627-632.
[13]
Mrityunjoy Das, Md. Sohanur Rahman, Md. Maniruzzaman and Md. Belal Uddin, evaluation of phytochemical, in vitro antibacterial and cytotoxic properties of ethanol extract of Acacia nilotica (L) leaves Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2016, 3 (12), 1492-1497.
[14]
Chandra Shekar, Ramesh Nagarajappa, Rupal Singh, and Rupesh Thakur, Antimicrobial efficacy of Acacia nilotica, Murraya koenigii L. Sprengel, Eucalyptus hybrid, and Psidium guajava on primary plaque colonizers: An in vitro comparison between hot and cold extraction process, J Indian Society Periodontology, 2015, 19 (2), 174-179.
[15]
Muhammad Bilal Sadiq Warunee Hanpithakpong Joel Tarning Anil KumarAnal, Screening of phytochemicals and in vitro evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of leaves, pods and bark extracts of Acacia nilotica (L.) Del., Industrial Crops and Products, 2015, 77, 873-882.
[16]
Ghazi Hussein, Hirotsugu Miyashiro, Norio Nakamura, Masao Hattori, Takuya Kawahata, Toru Otake, Nobuko Kakiuchi and Kunitada Shimotohno, Inhibitory effects of Sudanese plant extracts on HCV-1 replication and HCV-1 protease. Phytotherapy resrech, 1999, 13 (1), 31-36.
[17]
Hussein G, Miyashiro H, Nakamura N, Hattori M, Kakiuchi N., Inhibitory effects of Sudanese medicinal plant extracts on hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease. Phytotherapy resrech, 2000, 14 (7), 510-516.
[18]
Kritikar KR, Basu BD. Indian Medicinal plants with the illustrations (2nd Ed.), Uttaranchal Oriental Press, 2003, 4, 1289-92.
[19]
Deshpande SN., Preliminary Phytochemical Analysis and in vitro investigation of antibacterial activity of Acacia nilotica against clinical isolates, Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2013, 1 (5), 23-27.
[20]
Banso A. Phytochemical and antibacterial investigation of bark extracts of Acacia nilotica. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 2009, 3 (2), 082-085.
[21]
I. M. S. Eldeen, F. R. Van Heerden, J. Van Staden, In vitro biological activities of niloticane, a new bioactive cassane diterpene from the bark of Acacia nilotica subsp. Kraussiana, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2010, 128 (3), 555-560.
[22]
El-Tahir A, Satti GM, Khalid SA., Antiplasmodial activity of selected Sudanese medicinal plants with emphasis on Acacia nilotica. Phytotherapy Research, 1999, 13, 474-478.
[23]
Akintunde, T. A., Babayi, H. M., Alfa, S., Effect of Aqueous Extract of Acacia nilotica on Microbial and Castor Oil Induced Diarrhoea, Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology, 2015, 29, 34 - 37.
[24]
Brahma N,. Singh, B. R. Singh, R. L. Singh, D. Prakash, B. K. Sarma H. B. Singh, Antioxidant and anti-quorum sensing activities of the green pod of Acacia nilotica L., Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2009, 47 (4), 778-786.
[25]
Oladosu P, Samuel BB, Okhale SE, Ibrahim K, Okogun JI., Antitubercular activity of the dried fruits of Acacia nilotica. Journal of Phytomedicine and Therapeutics, 2007, 12, 76-79.
[26]
Sunita Verma, A review on ethnomedicinal plant Acacia nilotica (Linn.) wild, Journal of Pharmacognosy and Photochemistry, 2016, 5 (2), 241-242.
[27]
Khan R. Antimicrobial Activity of Five Herbal Extracts Against Multi Drug Resistant (MDR) Strains of Bacteria and Fungus of Clinical Origin. Molecules, 2009, 14 (2), 586-597.
[28]
Kalaivani T, Rajasekaran C, Suthindhiran K, Mathew L. Free Radical Scavenging, Cytotoxic and Hemolytic Activities from Leaves of Acacia nilotica (L.) Wild. Ex. Delile subsp. indica (Benth.) Brenan. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2011, 2011:274741. doi:10.1093/ecam/neq060.
[29]
Mariateresa Maldini, Paola Montoro, Arafa I. Hamed, Usama A. Mahalel, Wieslaw Oleszek, Anna Stochmal, Sonia Piacente, Strong antioxidant phenolics from Acacia nilotica: Profiling by ESI-MS and qualitative–quantitative determination by LC–ESI-MS, Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 2011, 56 (2), 228-239.
[30]
Rajbir Singh, Bikram Singh, Sukhpreet Singh, Neeraj Kumar, Subodh Kumar, Saroj Arora, Anti-free radical activities of kaempferol isolated from Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. Ex. Del., Toxicology in Vitro, 2008, 22 (8), 1965-1970.
[31]
Rajbir Singh, Bikram Singh, Sukhpreet Singh, Neeraj Kumar, Subodh Kumar, Saroj Arora, Umbelliferone – An antioxidant isolated from Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. Ex. Del Food Chemistry, 2010, 120 (3), 825-830.
[32]
Z. Osman, Eltayeb F., M Albadawi and Asaad Khalied M., Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activities of Water Extracted Polyphenolics Contents of some Acacias Species, Journal of forest products & industries, 2014, 3 (2), 89-92.
[33]
Asad M, Aslam M, Munir TA, Nadeem A., Effect of Acacia nilotica leaves extract on hyperglycaemia, lipid profile and platelet aggregation in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats, J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad, 2011, 23 (2), 3-7.
[34]
Zourata L -Ouedraogo, Daan van der Heide, Eline M van der Beek, Hans J M Swarts, John A M Mattheij and Laya Sawadogo. Effect of aqueous extract, of Acacia nilotica ssp adansonii on milk production and prolactin release in the rat. J Endocrin 2004, 182, 257–266.
[35]
Arora S, Kaur K, Kaur S. Indian medicinal plants as a reservoir of Protective phytochemicals. Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis, 2003, 1, 295–300.
[36]
Nath D, Sethi N, Singh RK, Jain AK., Commonly used Indian abortifacient plants with special reference to their teratologic effects in rats, J Ethnopharmacol, 1992, 36 (2), 147-154.
[37]
Wadood A, Wadood N, Shah SA. Effects of Acacia Arabica and arallum edulis on blood glucose levels of normal and Alloxan diabetic rabbits. J Pak Med Assoc 1989; 39, (1), 33-38.
[38]
Majumdar R, Bag BG, Maity N. Acacia nilotica (Babool) leaf extract mediated size-controlled rapid synthesis of gold nanoparticles and study of its catalytic activity. International Nano Letters, 2013, 3, 53, http://www.inl-journal.com/content/3/1/53.
[39]
K. Sahira Banu and Dr. L. Cathrine, General Techniques Involved in Phytochemical Analysis, International Journal of Advanced Research in Chemical Science, 2015, 2 (4), 25-32.
[40]
Okoro, S. O., Kawo, A. H. and Arzai, A. H., Phytochemical Screening, Antibacterial and Toxicological Activities of Acacia Nilotica Extracts, Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 2014, 7 (1), 105-115.
[41]
Sabah E. Eltegani, Mustafa Babikir, Dr. M. Jalal Elmansour, Dr. Mekaiel A. Ishak, Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of Acacia nilotica, European Journal of Biomedical And Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2017, 4 (8), 906-912.
[42]
Raju Ilavarasan, Leela Vadivelu, Phytochemical and Quality Assessment of Acacia nilotica Linn and Acacia leucophloea willd Flowers, Pharmacognosy Journal, 2017, 9 (6), 721-724.
[43]
Wu-Yang Huang, Yi-Zhong Cai & Yanbo Zhang Natural Phenolic Compounds From Medicinal Herbs and Dietary Plants: Potential Use for Cancer Prevention, Nutrition and Cancer, 2009 62 (1), 1-20.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186