Lignocelluloses Modified TiO2 Nanomaterials as Renewable Photocatalyst for Water Splitting
International Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology
Volume 2, Issue 1, June 2018, Pages: 5-11
Received: Jul. 19, 2018; Accepted: Jul. 30, 2018; Published: Aug. 28, 2018
Views 710      Downloads 53
Yilkal Dessie Sintayehu, Department of Chemistry, Adama Science and Technology University, Adama, Ethiopia
Article Tools
Follow on us
Photocatalytic water splitting process is a hopeful means to solve depletion and environmental pollution problems caused by fossil fuels as well as for sustainable hydrogen production using renewable natural resources like sunlight and biomass (cotton stalk). In this study the aim was to fabricate cotton stalk extracted Lignocellulose (LGO) Titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles via sol-gel in ethanol and to investigate their photocatalytic water splitting activities under Visible light irradiation. Hence, in this study the opportunity for structural development of lignocellulose (LGO) modified TiO2 nanomaterial towards highly efficient and realistic photocatalysis applications are evidently abundant after improved light absorption, charge-carrier dynamics, and improved particle size porosity that benefits photocatalysis functionalities. LGO-TiO2 nanoparticle, (≈19.57 nm) for photocatalysis was prepared via sol-gel method. The fabricated nanomaterial photoelectrochemical characterization was operated using three electrode system with a photoanode as a working electrode, coiled Pt wire as a counter electrode and Hg/Hg2Cl2 as a reference electrode, and 0.5 M Na2SO4 (with pH buffered at 6.75) purged with N2, solution was applied as a supporting electrolyte. The structural and morphological characterizations of the fabricated nanomaterial are carried out using FTIR, XRD, SEM, and EDX techniques, based upon which the mechanistic insights are discussed. SEM analysis suggests that an average size of particle grain size is found to be in the range of 0.5-4 μm. The photocurrent densities of regular TiO2 and LGO-TiO2 towards water splitting reaction under light illumination from xenon lamp were compared and found in reasonable agreement. The work also studied the application of visible light illuminated LGO-TiO2 photoanode photocatalyst to the overall water splitting with a photoconversion efficiency of 18.91% higher than that of bare TiO2 nanoparticles and this suggests that surface functionality, surface topography, porosity and particle size, as well as purity and chemical composition of the prepared sample was successfully functionalized..
Biomass, Water-Splitting, Lignocellulose, Photocatalyst
To cite this article
Yilkal Dessie Sintayehu, Lignocelluloses Modified TiO2 Nanomaterials as Renewable Photocatalyst for Water Splitting, International Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. Vol. 2, No. 1, 2018, pp. 5-11. doi: 10.11648/j.ijpp.20180201.12
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
M. R. Gholipour, C-T. Dinh, F. Béland and T-O Do, Nanocomposite heterojunctions as sunlight-driven photocatalysts for hydrogen production from water splitting, Nanoscale, vol. 7, pp. 8187-8208, 2015.
J.-P. Lange, I. Lewandowski, and P. M. Ayoub, “Cellulosic biofuels: a sustainable option for transportation,” in Sustainable Development in the Process Industries, pp. 171-198, John Wiley & Sons, NewYork, USA, 2010.
I. Siró and D. Plackett, Microfibrillated cellulose and new nanocomposite materials: a review, Cellulose, vol. 17, pp. 459-494, 2010.
M. M. Pavlović, V. Ćosović, M. G. Pavlović, N. Talijan and V. Bojanić, Electrical Conductivity of Lignocellulose Composites Loaded with Electrodeposited Copper Powders, International Journal of Electrochemical Science, vol. 6, pp. 3812-3829, 2011.
X-J YANG, S. Wang, H-M Sun, X-B Wang and J-S Lian, Preparation and photocatalytic performance of Cu-doped TiO2 nanoparticles, Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, vol. 25, pp. 504-509, 2015.
L. S. Daniel, H. Nagai, N. Yoshida and M. Sato, Photocatalytic Activity of Vis-Responsive Ag-Nanoparticles/TiO2 Composite Thin Films Fabricated by Molecular Precursor Method (MPM), catalysts, vol. 3, pp. 625-645, 2013.
A. Gautam, A. S. Kshirsagar, S. Banerjee, V. V. Dhapte and P. K. Khanna, UVC-Shielding by Nano-TiO2/PMMA Composite: A Chemical Approach, Journal of Materials Science & Nanotechnology, Vol. 4, pp. 1-14, 2016.
G. Yang, Z. Jiang, H. Shi, T. Xiao and Z. Yan, Preparation of highly visible-light active N-doped TiO2 photocatalyst, Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 20, pp. 5301-5309, 2010.
M. Fekadu and S. Feleke, Biomass energy production technologies of fast pyrolysis and transesterification: a review, International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, vol. 4, pp. 629-637, 2014.
C-H Wu, J-F Shr, C-F Wu and C-T Hsieh, Synthesis and photocatalytic characterization of titania-supported bamboo charcoals by using sol–gel method, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 203, pp. 326-332, 2008.
S. Perumal, K. MonikandaPrabu, C. G. Sambandam and A. P. Mohamed, Synthesis and Characterization Studies of Solvothermally Synthesized Undoped and Ag-Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles Using Toluene as a Solvent, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, Vol. 4, pp. 184-187, 2014.
S. Bagheri, D. Ramimoghadam, A. T. Yousefi and S. B. A. Hamid, Synthesis, Characterization and Electrocatalytic Activity of Silver Doped-Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles, International Journal of Electrochemical Science, vol. 10, pp. 3088-3097, 2015.
G. D. Scholes, G. R. Fleming, A. O. Castro and R. V. Grondelle, Lessons from nature about solar light harvesting, Nature chemistry, vol. 3, pp. 763-774, 2011.
P. Silija, Z. Yaakob, V. Suraja, N. N. Binitha and Z. S. Akmal, An Enthusiastic Glance in to the Visible Responsive Photocatalysts for Energy Production and Pollutant Removal, with Special Emphasis on Titania, International Journal of Photoenergy, vol. 2012, pp. 1-20, 2011.
Yongkun Li, Hongmei Yu, Wei Song, Guangfu Li, Baolian Yi, Zhigang Shao, A novel photoelectrochemical cell with self-organized TiO2 nanotubes as photoanodes for hydrogen generation, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 36, pp. 14374-14380, 2011.
R. Bindig, S. Butt, I. Hartmann, M. Matthes and C. Thiel, Application of Heterogeneous Catalysis in Small-Scale Biomass Combustion Systems, Catalysts, vol. 2, pp. 223-243, 2012.
S. Kamel, Nanotechnology and its applications in lignocellulosic composites, a mini review, eXPRESS Polymer Letters, vol. 1, pp. 546-575, 2007.
N. Soltani, E. Saion, M. Z. Hussein, M. Erfani, A. Abedini, G. Bahmanrokh, M. Navasery and P. Vaziri, Visible Light-Induced Degradation of Methylene Blue in the Presence of Photocatalytic ZnS and CdS Nanoparticles, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 13, pp. 12242-12258, 2012.
P. Dhatshanamurthi, B. Subash, B. Krishnakumar, M. Shanthi, Highly active ZnS loaded TiO2 photocatalyst for mineralization of phenol red sodium salt under UV-A light, Indian Journal of Chemistry, vol. 53A, pp. 820-823, 2014.
J. R. Bolton, S. J. Strickler and J. S. Connolly, Limiting and realizable efficiencies of solar photolysis of water, Nature, vol. 316, pp. 495-500, 1985.
R. Luque and A. M. Balu, ed, Producing Fuels and Fine Chemicals from Biomass Using Nanomaterials. Taylor and Francis Book Inc., New Jersey, 2013.
D. Ramimoghadam, S. Bagheri, S. B. A. Hamid, Biotemplated Synthesis of Anatase Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles via Lignocellulosic Waste Material, Volume 2014, Article ID 205636, 7 pages.
J. S. Lee, Photocatalytic water splitting under visible light with particulate semiconductor catalysts, Catalysis Surveys from Asia, Vol. 9, pp. 217-227, 2005.
A. O. Ayeni, O. A. Adeeyo, O. M. Oresegun, T. E. Oladimeji, compositional analysis of lignocellulosic materials: Evaluation of an economically viable method suitable for woody and non-woody biomass, American Journal of Engineering Research, vol. 4, pp. 14-19, 2015.
W. Ren, Z. Ai, F. Jia, L. Zhang, X. Fan and Z. Zou, Low temperature preparation and visible light photocatalytic activity of mesoporous carbon-doped crystalline TiO2, Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, vol. 69, pp. 138-144, 2007.
K. Bubacz, J. Choina, D. Dolat and A. W. Morawski, Methylene Blue and Phenol Photocatalytic Degradation on Nanoparticles of Anatase TiO2, Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, vol. 19, pp. 685-691, 2010.
M. Lezner, E. Grabowska and A. Zaleska, Preparation and Photocatalytic Activity Of Iron-Modified Titanium Dioxide Photoc Atalyst, Physicochemical Problems of Mineral Processing, vol. 48, pp. 193-200, 2012.
A. A. Guilherme, P. V. F. Dantas, E. S. Santos, F. A. N. Fernandes and G. R. Macedo, Evaluation Of Composition, Characterization And Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Pretreated Sugar Cane Bagasse, Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering, Vol. 32, pp. 23 - 33, 2015.
S. U. M. Khan, M. Al-Shahry, W. B. Ingler Jr, Efficent Photochemical water splitting by a chemically Modified n- TiO2, Science, Vol. 297, pp. 2243-2245, 2002.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186