Responses of Two Apiaceae Species to Direct Iron Deficiency
International Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology
Volume 2, Issue 1, June 2018, Pages: 16-21
Received: Jul. 22, 2018; Accepted: Aug. 8, 2018; Published: Sep. 10, 2018
Views 574      Downloads 35
Haifa Sbai, Department of Biological Sciences and Plant Protection, Higher Institute of Agronomy of Chott Meriem, Sousse, Tunisia
Rabiaa Haouala, Department of Biological Sciences and Plant Protection, Higher Institute of Agronomy of Chott Meriem, Sousse, Tunisia
Article Tools
Follow on us
The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological and physiological responses of Petroselinum crispum and Apium graveolens to iron deficiency. Seedlings of both species were cultivated in continuously aerated nutrient solution with or without 48.8µM Fe during one month. Score chlorosis, growth parameters, chlorophyll content, acidification capacity and iron, zinc and copper levels, were measured. The results showed that growth of both species was severely affected by direct iron deficiency. Nevertheless, chlorosis symptoms were more severe in P. crispum, compared to A. graveolens. High chlorosis index and a significant decrease of chlorophyll content were registered in P. crispum. In addition, shoot length and whole plant biomass production were affected by iron deficiency in both species. The lower reduction was observed in Fe-deficient plants of A. graveolens. However, the later specie registered the highest root length. Moreover, a capacity of root acidification due to a noticeable proton release rate was observed with A. graveolens. Although grown under Fe deficiency conditions, these specie was able to increase their shoot iron use efficiency. Furthermore, Fe deficiency led to a significant accumulation of zinc in leaves of both species while copper accumulation was only noted in P.crispum roots. The capacity of A. graveloens to maintain plant growth and to preserve adequate chlorophyll synthesis under iron-limiting conditions is related to its better Fe-use efficiency, in addition to its high acidification and root reducing capacities. This allows us to suggest that A. graveolens is more effective to overcome iron deficiency than P. crispum.
Petroselinum crispum, Apium graveolens, Fe Deficiency, Acidification Capacity, Iron Status, Chlorophyll Concentration
To cite this article
Haifa Sbai, Rabiaa Haouala, Responses of Two Apiaceae Species to Direct Iron Deficiency, International Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. Vol. 2, No. 1, 2018, pp. 16-21. doi: 10.11648/j.ijpp.20180201.14
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
G. Zocchi, P. De Nisi, M. Dell’Orto, L. Espen, P. M. Gallina, Iron deficiency differently effects metabolic responses in soybean roots. J Exp Bot 58 (2007) 993-1000.
G. Zocchi, S. Cocucci, Fe uptake mechanism in Fe-efficient cucumber roots. Plant Physiology 92 (1990) 908-911.
S. Donnini, A. Castagna, A. Ranieri, G. Zocchi, Differential responses in pear and quince genotypes induced by Fe deficiency and bicarbonate. Journal of Plant Physiology 166 (2009) 1181-1193.
V. Fernandez, V. Del Rio, J. Abadia, A. Abadia, Foliar iron fertilization of Peach (Prunuspersica (L.) Batsch): effects of iron compounds, surfactants and other adjuvants. Plant Soil 289 (2006) 239-252.
P. R. Ortiz, B. C. Meza, F. R. De la Garza Requena, G. M. Flores, J. E. Barra, Evaluation of different iron compounds in chlorotic Italian lemon trees (Citrus lemon). Plant Physiol. Biochem. 45 (2007) 330-334.
V. Fernandez, G. Ebert, Foliar iron fertilization—a critical review. J. Plant Nutr. 28 (2005) 2113-2124.
D. R. Hoagland, D. I. Arnon, The water culture method for growing plants without soil. Circ 347. Calif. Agric. Exp. Sta, BerkleyCalif, 1950, pp. 32.
L. Jacobson, Maintenance of iron supply in nutrient solutions by a single addition of ferric-potassium ethylene diamine-tetracetate. Plant Physiol. 26 (1951) 411-413.
R. R. Gildersleeve, W. R. Ocumpaugh, Greenhouse evaluation of subterranean clover species for susceptibility to iron deficiency chlorosis. Crop Science 29 (1989) 949-951.
A. Torrecillas, A. Léon, F. Del Amor, M. C. Martinez-Mompean, Determinacion rapida de clorofila en discos foliares de limonero. Fruits 39 (1984) 617-622.
W. Zorrig, A. Rouached, Z. Shahzad, C. Abdelly, J. C. Davidian, P. Berthomieu, Identification of three relationships linking cadmium accumulation to cadmium tolerance and zinc and citrate accumulation in lettuce. Journal of Plant Physiology 167 (2010) 1239–1247.
H. Houmani, N. Jelali, C. Abdelly, M. Gharsalli, Mineral elements bioavailability in the halophyte species Suaedafruticosa. Journal of Biological Research-Thessaloniki 17 (2012) 113-120.
W. M’sehli, M. Dell’Orto, P. De Nisi, S. Donnini, C. Abdelly, G. Zocchi, M. Gharsalli, Responses of two ecotypes of Medicagociliaris to direct and bicarbonate-induced iron deficiency conditions. ActaPhysiol Plant 31 (2009) 667-673.
A. Molassiotis, G. Tanou, G. Diamantidis, A. Patakas, The rios Effects of 4-month Fe deficiency exposure on Fe reduction mechanism, photosynthetic gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and antioxidant defense in two peach rootstocks differing in Fe deficiency tolerance. J. Plant Physiol. 163 (2006) 176-185.
R. Ksouri, A. Debez, H. Mahmoudi, Z. Ouerghi, M. Gharsalli, M. Lachaal, Genotypic variability within Tunisian grapevine varieties (Vitisvinifera L.) facing bicarboante-induced iron deficiency. Plant PhysiolBiochem 45 (2007) 315-322.
M. Pestana, A. De Varennes, J. Abadia, E. A. Faria, Differential tolerance to iron deficiency of citrus rootstocks grown in nutrient solution. Sci. Hortic. 104 (2005) 25-36.
D. Kramer, V. Romheld, E. Landsberg, H. Marschner, Induction of transfer-cell-formation by iron deficiency m the root epidermis of Helianthus annuus L. Planta 147 (1980) 335-339.
B. E. S. Gunning, J. S. Pate, L. G. Briatry, Specialized transfer cells in minor veins of leaves and their possible significance in phloem translocation. J. Cell Biol. 37 (1968) C7-C12.
Sudahono, D. H. Byrne, R. E. Rouse, Greenhouse screening of citrus rootstock for tolerance to bicarbonate-induced iron chlorosis. Hortscience 29 (1994) 113–116.
H. Mahmoudi, N. Labidi, R. Ksouri, M. Gharsalli, C. Abdelly, Differential tolerance to iron deficiency of chickpea varieties and Fe resupply effects. C. R. Biologies 330 (2007) 237-246.
N. Jelali, M. Dell’Orto, M. Rabhi, G. Zocchi, C. Abdelly, M. Gharsalli, Physiological and biochemical responses for two cultivars of Pisumsativum (‘‘Merveille de Kelvedon’’ and ‘‘Lincoln’’) to iron deficiency conditions. ScientiaHorticulturae 124 (2010) 116-121.
L. Bavaresco, M. Fregoni, A. Perino, Physiological aspects of lime-induced chlorosis in some Vitis species. I. Pot trial on calcareous soil. Vitis 33 (1994) 123-126.
J. F. Briat, I. Fobis-Loisy, N. Grignon, S. Lobréaux, N. Pascal, G. Savino, S. Thoiron, N. Von Wirén, O. Van Wuytswinkel, Cellular and molecular aspects of iron metabolism in plant. Biology of the cell 84 (1995) 69-81.
N. Terry, J. Abadia, Function of iron in chloroplast. J. plant Nutr. 9 (1986) 609-646.
R. Hänsch, R. R. Mendel, Physiological functions of mineral micronutrients (Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe, Ni, Mo, B, Cl). Current Opinion in Plant Biology 12 (2009) 259–266.
J. Moseley, J. Quinn, M. Eriksson, S. Merchant, The Crd1 gene encodes a putative di‐iron enzyme required for photosystem I accumulation in copper deficiency and hypoxia in Chlamydomonasreinhardtii. The EMBO Journal 19 (2000) 2139-2151.
S. Tottey, M. A. Block, M. Allen, T. Westergren, C. Albrieux, H. V. Scheller, S. Merchant, P. E. Jensen, Arabidopsis CHL27, located in both envelope and thylakoid membranes, is required for the synthesis of protochlorophyllide. PNAS 100 (2003) 16119–16124.
J. F. Briat, C. Curie, F. Gaymard, Iron utilization and metabolism in plants. Current Opinion of Plant Biology 10 (2007) 276-282.
S. Andaluz, A. F. Lopez-Millan, J. De las Rivas, E. M. Aro, J. Abadia, A. Abadia, Proteomic profiles of thylakoid membranes and changes in response to iron deficiency. Photosynthesis Research89 (2006) 141-155.
J. Jeong, E. L. Connolly, Iron uptake mechanisms in plants: functions of the FRO family of ferric reductases. Plant science 176 (2009) 709-714.
M. Dell’Orto, S. Santi, P. De Nisi, S. Cesco, Z. Varanini, G. Zocchi, R. Pinton, Development of Fe-deficiency responses in cucumber (Cucumissativus L.) roots: involvement of plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity. Journal of Experimental Botany 51 (2000) 695-701.
R. Ksouri, S. M’rah, M. Gharsalli, M. Lachâal, Biochemical responses to true and bicarbonate-induced iron deficiency in grapevine (Vitis) genotypes. J. Plant Nutr. 29 (2006) 305-315.
M. Rabhi, Z. Barhoumi, R. Ksouri, C. Abdelly, M. Gharsalli, Interactive effects of salinity and iron deficiency in Medicagociliaris. C. R. Biologies 330 (2007) 779-788.
N. Grotz, M. L. Guerinot, Limiting nutrients: an old problem with new solutions? Current Opinion in Plant Biology 5 (2002) 158–163.
R. M. Welch, W. A. Norvell, Growth and nutrient uptake by barley (Hordeumvulgare L. cv Herta): studies using an N-(2- hydroxyethyl)ethylenedinitrilotriacetic acid-buffered nutrient solution technique. II. Role of zinc in the uptake and root leakage of mineral nutrients. Plant Physiology, 101 (1993) 627-631.
N. Jelali, I. Ben Salah, W. M’sehli, S. Donnini, G. Zocchi, M. Gharsalli, Comparison of three pea cultivars (Pisumsativum) regarding their responses to direct and bicarbonate-induced iron deficiency. ScientiaHorticulturae 129 (2011) 548-553.
E. Lombi, K. L. Tearall, J. R. Howarth, F. J. Zhao, M. J. Hawkesford, S. P. Mcgrath, Influence of iron status an cadmium and zinc uptake by different ecotypes of the hyper -accumulator Thlaspicaerulescens. Plant Physiol. 128 (2002) 1359–1367.
C. K. Cohen, T. C. Fox, D. F. Garvin, L. V. Kochian, The role of iron deficiency stress responses in stimulating heavy-metal transport in plants. Plant Physiology 116 (1998) 1063-1072.
M. Treeby, H. Marschner, V. Römheld, Mobilization of iron and other micronutrient cations from a calcareous soil by plant-borne, microbial, and synthetic metal chelators. Plant Soil 114 (1989) 217−226.
F. J. Zhao, R. E. Hamon, M. J. McLaughlin, Root exudates of the hyperaccumulator Thlaspicaerulescensdo not enhance metal mobilization. New Phytologist 151 (2001) 613-620.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186