Determination of Major Factors Associated with Fungal Contamination of Wheat Under Storage Conditions
International Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology
Volume 3, Issue 2, December 2019, Pages: 21-26
Received: Oct. 21, 2019;
Accepted: Nov. 26, 2019;
Published: Dec. 7, 2019
Views 428 Downloads 93
Asela Kesho, College of Agriculture, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia; Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Holetta Agricultural Research Center, Addis Abeba, Ethiopia
Alemayehu Chala, College of Agriculture, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia
Elfinesh Shikur, College of Agriculture, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia
Storage fungi are among the major factors causing post-harvest deterioration of crop produce worldwide. However, their association to the major factors that contribute to fungal contamination under storage conditions remains under studied in many parts of Sub-Saharan Africa including Ethiopia. Therefore, the current work was carried out with the objectives to identify major factors that contribute to fungal contamination of wheat grains under storage conditions. For this purpose mycological analysis was carried out using 180 wheat grain samples collected from three major wheat growing zones (Arsi, West Arsi and Bale) of South East Ethiopia. Results of the mycological analysis revealed the contamination of wheat grains by fungal species at different locations and storage time with different frequencies. Fungal contamination of samples indicated that highest incidence was observed at West Arsi (96.98%) followed by Bale (91.76%) and Arsi (86.43%). Fungal contamination also varied with storage period with the highest incidence of (98.62%) followed by (89.78%) and (86.77%) was observed after six months, upon harvest and three months of storage, respectively. The highest fungal incidence (98.62%) was recorded after six months storage of wheat grain. Fungal incidence was highly associated with two of the independent variables, namely, temperature and relative humidity of storage in a logistic regression model. However, there is no significant association (p<0.05) with grain moisture content and storage type of wheat grains under storage conditions.
Determination of Major Factors Associated with Fungal Contamination of Wheat Under Storage Conditions, International Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology.
Vol. 3, No. 2,
2019, pp. 21-26.
Hashmi F. M. H. and Ghaffar A. 2006. Seed-borne mycoflora of wheat, sorghum and barley. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 38 (1): 185-192.
Rehman A., Sultana K., Minhas N., Gulfraz M., Kaukab Raja G. and Anwar Z. 2011. Study of most prevalent wheat seed-borne mycoflora and its effect on seed nutritional value. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 5 (25): 4328-4337.
Suproniene S., Mankeviciene A., Kadziene G., Feiziene D., Feiza V., Semaskiene R. and Dabkevicius Z. 2011. The effect of different tillage fertilization practices on the mycoflora of wheat grains. Agriculture Food Science. 20: 315-326.
Essono G., Ayodele M., Akoa A., Foko J., Limbo S. and Gockowski J. 2007. Aspergillus species on cassava chips in storage in rural areas of southern Cameroon. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 1-8.
Chelkowski J. 1991. Cereal grain mycotoxins, fungi and quality in drying and storage. Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands. 441-476.
Conkova E., Laciakova A., Styria I., Czerwiecki L. and Wilczynska G. 2006. Fungal contamination and the levels of mycotoxins (DON and OTA) in cereal samples from Poland and East Slovakia. Czech Journal of Food Science. 24 (1): 33-40.
Wiese M. V. 1984. Compendium of wheat diseases. 3rded. The American Phytopathological Society. 106pp.
Bisrat Getnet, and Laike Kebede. 2016. Role of Mechanization in Post-harvest losses: Challenges and the way forward. Plant Protection Society of Ethiopia (PPSE) 22nd Annual Conference. Book of Abstracts. March, 10-11, 2016.
Klyszejko A., Kubus Z. and Zakowska Z. 2005. Mycological analysis of cereal samples and screening of Fusarium strains ability to form deoxynivalenole (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) mycotoxins. Polish Journal of Microbiology. 54: 21-25.
Hajihasani M., Hajihassani A. and Khaghani S. 2012. Incidence and distribution of seed-borne fungi. Journal of Biotechnology. 11 (23): 6290-6295.
Bishaw Zewdie, Struik P. C. and Van Gastel A. J. G. 2013. Wheat and barley seed system in Ethiopia and Syria: farmers, varietal perceptions, seed sources and seed management. International Journal of Plant Production. 7 (4): 637-658.
Dinku Senbeta and Abdella Gure. 2014. Occurrence of fungi associated with stored wheat grains (Triticumaestivum) in Shashemene and Arsi Negelle Districts, Ethiopia. International Journal of Innovation Science Research. 10: 492-497.
Tadele Tefera. 2016. Post-harvest Losses in the Face of Increasing Food Shortage. Plant Protection Society of Ethiopia (PPSE) 22nd Annual Conference. Book of Abstracts. March, 10-11, 2016.
Marasas W. F. O., Burgess L. W., Anelich R. Y., Lamprecht S. C. and van Schalkwyk D. J. 1988. Survey of Fusarium species associated with plant debris in South African soils. South African Journal of Botany. 54: 63-71.
SAS (c). 2010. Software analyses system. Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA version 9.3 (TS1M2 MBCS3060).
Yuen J., Twengstrom E. and Sigvald R. 1996. Calibration and verification of risk algorithms using logistic regression. European Journal of Plant Pathology. 102: 847-854.
Hosmer D. W. and Lemeshow S. 2000. Applied Logistic Regression. 2nd ed. (Wiley: New York.). NY, USA.
Getachew Gudero Mengesha, Habtamu Terefe Yetayew and Asela Kesho Sako. 2018. Spatial distribution and association of banana (Musa spp.) Fusarium wilts (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense) epidemics with biophysical factors in southwestern Ethiopia. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 51 (11-12): 575-601.
McCullagh P. and Nelder J. A. 1989. Generalized Linear Models. 2nd ed. London: Chapman and Hall. 511pp.
White J. W., Tanner D. G. and Corbett J. D. 2001. An Agro-climatological Characterization of Bread Wheat Production Areas in Ethiopia. NRG-GIS Series 01-01. Mexico. D. F. CIMMYT.
Habib A., Sahi S. T., Javed N. and Ahmad S. 2011. Prevalence of seed-borne fungi on wheat during storage and its impact on seed germination. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology. 23 (1): 42-47.
Niaz I., Dawar S. and Sitara U. 2011. Effect of different moisture and storage temperature on seed borne mycoflora of maize. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 43 (5): 2639-2643.
Dudoiu R., Cristea S., Lupu C., Popa D. and Oprea M. 2016. Micoflora associated with maize grains during storage period. Agrolife Scientific Journal. 5 (1): 63-58.
Sahile Samuel, Chemeda Fininsa, Sakhuja P. K. and Seid Ahmed. 2008. Effect of mixed cropping and fungicides on chocolate spot (Botrytis fabae) of faba bean (Viciafaba) in Ethiopia. Crop Protection. 27: 275-282.
Belete Eshetu, Amare Ayalew and Seid Ahmed. 2013. Associations of biophysical factors with faba bean root rot (Fusarium solani) epidemics in the northeastern highlands of Ethiopia. Crop Protection. 52: 39-46.
Baloch U. K. 1999. Wheat: Post-harvest operations. Food Agricultural Organization United Nations, 10.
Mannaa M. and Kim K. D. 2017. Influence of temperature and water activity on deleterious fungi and mycotoxin production during grain storage. Microbiology. 45 (4): 240-254.
Muthomi J. W. and Narla R. D. 2015. Management of Storage Diseases in Seed Lots. Department of Plant Science and Crop Protection University of Nairobi, Kenya-Seed Enterprise Management Institutes.