Issues and Problems of Community Water Supply Schemes with Special Reference to Nepal
Drinking water is a basic need for survival and good health of human beings as well as for any form of life on earth. In the absence of potable water, there is a high risk of transmission of serious diseases among people, like diarrhea, dysentery, cholera, and typhoid. Despite significant progress on community water schemes, worldwide still 2.2 billion people are out of access to safely managed water services. This study was conducted during the period from February to July 2020. Published literature such as paper, thesis, manuals, database, reports, and standards were collected from different sources and went on thoroughly. The conclusions are drawn based on studied materials. The study found that about 829 thousand people are estimated to die each year from diarrhea because of unsafe contaminated drinking water, sanitation, and hand hygiene. In South Asia, over 134 million people still do not have access to clean drinking water. Various studies have shown that progress on basic water supply in Nepal has reached up to 89% of the population by the end of 2019. Community drinking water schemes in Nepal are facing various types of problems, such as technical problems related to, gender equity and social inclusion (GESI), cost recovery and affordability, operation and maintenance, institutional, and legal framework. Because those problems on water schemes are not timely and appropriately addressed, there is always a high impact on un-functionality, poor service, and unsustainability. The study would like to suggest that the operation and maintenance funds should be managed after the implementation of the project. The capacity building training for the water users committee should be conducted before the handover of the schemes.
Khet Raj Dahal,
Issues and Problems of Community Water Supply Schemes with Special Reference to Nepal, Journal of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering.
Vol. 5, No. 5,
2020, pp. 114-125.
WHO, "Safely managed drinking water - thematic report on drinking water," World Health Organization, 2017.
S. Rout, "Rural Water Supply and Sanitation in South Asia: Problems, prospects and policy changes," 2010. [Online]. Available: https://www.academia.edu/2545990/Rural_Water_Supply_and_Sanitation_in_South_Asia_Problems_Prospects_and_Policy_Changes.
SNV, "Open-defecation-free-Nepal-sanitation-health- dignity-and-development," September 2019. [Online]. Available: https://snv.org/update/open-defecation-free-nepal-sanitation-health-dignity-and-development. [Accessed 28 05 2020].
NPC, "15th Plan (Fiscal Year 2076/77-2080/81)," Government of Nepal, National Planning Commission, Kathmandu Nepal, 2020.
NLC, "Constitution of Nepal, Part 3, Fundamental Rights & Dueties," 2020. [Online]. Available: http://www.lawcommission.gov.np/en/archives/981.
UNICEF, "UNICEF’s Strategy for WASH (2016-2030)," UNICEF, New Yor, 2016.
WHO & UNECEF, " Guidance on water and sanitation in extreme events," WHO & UNECEF, 2010.
WHO, "World Health Orginazation," 2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/drinking-water.
D. B. Brooks, "Water Local level management," International Development Research Center,, Ottawa, Canada, 2002.
WB, "Documents," 2013. [Online]. Available: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/375231468124161970/pdf/ICR15650P071280IC0disclosed03010130.pdf.
RWSSP-WN, "Publications," 2018. [Online]. Available: https://www.rwsspwn.org.np/phase-ii-publications.
ADB, "Report and recommendation of the president to the board of directors on a proposed loan to the kingdom of Nepal for the community based water supply and sanitation sector project," Asian Development Bank, 2003.
DWSSM, "Water Supply Service Delivery Directives 2069 and Water Supply Service Manual – 2071,," Department of Water Supply and Sewerage, Government of Nepal, Kathmandu Nepal, 2013.
DWSS, "National Drinking Water Quality Standards, 2005," Government of Nepal, Ministry of Physical Planning and Works, Kathmandu, 2005.
NMIP, "Nationwide coverage and functional status of water supply and sanitation status in Nepal," Department of Water Supply and Sewarage Management (DWSSM), Kathmandu, 2014.
NPC, "Post disaster need assessment (PDNA)," National Planning Commission, Government of Nepal, Kathmandu, 2015.
T. D. Acharya, S. Mainali, I. Yang and D. Lee, "ANALYSIS OF JURE LANDSLIDE DAM, SINDHUPALCHOWK USING GIS AND REMOTE SENSING," The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Vols. Volume XLI-B6, pp. 201-203, 2016.
M. Coffta, "Litrature review," 2020. [Online]. Available: https://guides.library.bloomu.edu/litreview. [Accessed 7 6 2020].
AGDH, "For Consumer," 2010. [Online]. Available: https://www1.health.gov.au/internet/publications/publishing.nsf/Content/ohp-enhealth-manual-atsi-cnt-l~ohp-enhealth-manual-atsi-cnt-l-ch6~ohp-enhealth-manual-atsi-cnt-l-ch6.1. [Accessed 9 6 2020].
MoPPW, "Nepal Law Commission," Ministry of Physical Planning and Works, Government of Nepal, 2009. [Online]. Available: http://www.lawcommission.gov.np/en/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/National-Urban-Water-Supply-and-Sanitation-Sector-Policy.pdf. [Accessed 7 6 2020].
MoWS, "Ministry of Water Supply, (MoWS), Nepal," 2020. [Online]. Available: https://mows.gov.np/812/?lang=en.
Swiss Red Cross, Water and sanitation guidelines, Rainmattstrasse, Berne: Swiss Red Cross, 2014.
R. K. GC, S. Ranganathan and R. P. Hall, "Does Rural Water System Design Matter? A Study of Productive Use of Water in Rural Nepal," Water, MDPI, pp. 1-20, 2019.
GoN, "National Urban Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Policy,," Government of Nepal, Kathmandu, 2009.
iDE Nepal, ICIMOD, "Natural Resource Management Approaches and Technologies in Nepal: Approach – A multiple-use water system," ICIMOD, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2013.
MoWSS, "Nepal WASH sector development plan (2016-2030)," MoWSS, Sector efficiency improvement unit, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2016.
CDC & USAID, "Preventing Diarrheal Disease in Developing Countries: Safe Storage of Drinking Water," Center for diseases control and prevention (CDC) and United States Agency for International Development (USAID), From the American people, Arlington, VA 22209, USA, 2009.
CAWST, Wellness through water An introduction to household water treatment and storage, Calgary Alberta, Canada: Center for affordable water and sanitation technology, 2009.
R. Kumar, Water supply engineering, Delhi, India: Aitabs publishers, India, 2016.
EPA, "Point-of-Use or Point-ofEntry Treatment Options for small drinking water supply system," Environmental Protection Agency, United States, 2006.
B. Stauffer and D. Spuhler, "Affordable solutions for viable sanitation and water management," 2019. [Online]. Available: https://sswm.info/about-toolbox.
CAWST, "An Introduction to Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage, A CAWST Training Manual," Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology (CAWST), Calgary, 2009.
UNISDR, "Terminology on Disaster Risk Reduction," United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, Geneva,, 2009.
MoUD, "Water safety plan handbook," Ministry of urban development, Government of Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2013.
WHO, "Global status report on water safety plans: A review of proactive risk assessment and risk management practices to ensure the safety of drinking water," World Health Organization, Geneva, 2017.
USCG, "USGC, Science for a changing world," 2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.usgs.gov/special-topic/water-science-school/science/where-earths-water?qt-science_center_objects=0#qt-science_center_objects. [Accessed 24 05 2020].
The UN, "The Sustainable Development Goals Report 2019," The United Nations, New York, 2019.
WVI, "Clean water," 2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.worldvision.org/our-work/clean-water.
UN, "Transforming our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development," 2015. [Online]. Available: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015/transformingourworld/publication.
WHO, "Safely managed drinking water - thematic report on drinking water," World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2017.
WHO, "Vision 2030: The resilience of water supply and sanitation in the face of climate change," World Health Organization, Geneva, 2009.
UNICEF, "Unicef South Asia," 2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.unicef.org/rosa/water-sanitation-and-hygiene-wash. [Accessed 25 05 2020].
Unicef/WHO, "Drinking Water Equity, Safety and Sustainability: Thematic report on drinking water 2011," WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP), United States of America, 2011.
MoHA, "National Strategy for Disaster Risk Management in Nepal," Ministry of Home Affairs, Nepal, Kathmandu, 2009.
DWSSM, "About us: Introduction to DWSSM," 2020. [Online]. Available: https://dwssm.gov.np/en/introduction.
NMIP, "National Wide Coverage and Functionality of water supply and sanitation in Nepal," National Management and Information Project, GoN, DWSS, Kathmandu Nepal, 2014.
NPC, "Sustainable Development Goals, 2016-2030 National (Preliminary) Report," Government of Nepal, National Planning Commission, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2015.
DWSSM, "Sanitation Status of Nepal Factsheet," Department of Water Supply and Sewarage Management, Kathmandu, 2018.
DWSS/WHO, "Water Safety Plan Handbook," Kathmandu, GoN, MoUD, Department of Water Supply and Sewerage Management, 2013, p. 4.
MoUD, "National Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Policy 2014 (Draft)," GoN, Ministry of Urban Development, Kathmandu, 2014.
DoLIDAR, "HRBA & GESI STRATEGY & ACTION PLAN - Operationalizing Human Rights-Based Approach (HRBA) and Gender Equality & Social Inclusion (GESI) Principles in the Water and Sanitation Sector," Department of Local Infrastructure Development and Agricultural Road, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2015.
R. Bashyal, "Climate tracker," 2017. [Online]. Available: http://climatetracker.org/climate-change-impacts-water-resources-case-nepal/#:~:text=In%20Nepal%2C%20climate%20change%20has,food%20store%20areas%20of%20Nepal.