American Journal of Construction and Building Materials
Volume 4, Issue 1, June 2020, Pages: 8-13
Received: Jul. 4, 2019;
Accepted: Jan. 18, 2020;
Published: Feb. 14, 2020
Views 631 Downloads 277
Bikila Meko Kejela, Department of Construction Technology and Management, Wolkite University, Wolkite, Ethiopia
Concrete is one of the versatile and widely used building materials in the world construction industry. Cement being the main binder in concrete, its production process is both uneconomical and environmental unfriendly. In order to alleviate these problems, the use of alternative materials which have lower cost of production, lower emission of CO2, and lower energy consumption, were being implemented. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of waste paper ash as cement replacement material in concrete production. Accordingly, chemical compositions of waste paper ash were investigated and cement was replaced by waste paper ash in a range of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%. To examine the suitability of paper ash for concrete production, its’ effect on both fresh and hardened properties of C – 25 concrete was studied. From result of this study, it was observed that, the chemical compositions of waste paper ash were not fulfill the requirements of Pozzolanic material. Paper ash has lengthened the setting times of blended cement paste and its normal consistency was increased. The cement paste with replacement up to 10% showed a normal consistency with in standard range. Workability of the concrete was tested immediately after preparing the concrete mix whereas the compressive strength tests were tested after 7, and 28 days of curing. The results indicated that workability of concrete containing waste paper ash decreases as the waste paper ash content increases. There is significant improvement in compressive strength of concrete. Replacement of ordinary Portland cement by waste paper ash up to 10% resulted in a better compressive strength than that of the convectional mix. An enhancement of 5.6% & 1.2% were observed for 5%, & 10% of replacement respectively. But the compressive strength decreases as the waste paper ash replacement increases over 10%. A highest compressive strength of 37.89kN/m2 was obtained for concrete containing 5% of waste paper ash.
Bikila Meko Kejela,
Waste Paper Ash as Partial Replacement of Cement in Concrete, American Journal of Construction and Building Materials.
Vol. 4, No. 1,
2020, pp. 8-13.
Kosmatka, S. H., Kerkhoff, B., Panarese, W. C. (2003). Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures (14th edition ed.). Skokie, Illinois, USA,: Portland Cement Association.
Savita, D., Nitish, G., Mahipal, N. M., Balveer, M., Mahesh, V. (2016). Review on Cement Replacement in Construction Industry. SSRG International Journal of Civil Engineering, 3 (5), 68-71.
Oriyomi, M. O., Oluwatobi, J. I. (2014). Assessment of the Suitability of Paper Waste as an Engineering. Material Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, 4 (6), 724-727.
ACI Committee, Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08). American Concrete Institute, 2008.
American Society for Testing and Materials, “Standard Specification for Concrete Aggregates,” in ASTM Standards, vol. 04, West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International, 2001.
American Society for Testing and Materials, “Standard Practice for Making and Curing Concrete Test Specimens in the,” in ASTM Standards, vol. 04, Farmington, 2000, pp. 1–8.
Ministry of Urban Development Housing and Construction, Standard Technical Specifications for Building Works. Addis Ababa, 2014.
A. M. Neville, Properties of concrete, 5th ed. Trans-Atlantic Publications, Inc., 2011.
Asmare, G. (2015). Pulp Production from Cotton Stalks using Kraft Pulping. Addis Ababa: Addis Ababa University.
Ali, A., Hashmi, H. N. & Baig, N. (2013), “Treatmentof the paper mill effluent – A review”, Annals of Faculty Engineering Hunedoara - International Journal of Engineering 11 (3), 337-340.
Sumit, A. B., S. P. Raut.,. (2013). Utilization of Waste Paper Pulp by Partial Replacement of Cement in Concrete. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA), Vol. 1, pp. 300-309.
Yun, H., Jung, H., Choi, C. (2007). Mechanical properties of papercrete containing waste paper. Korea: Architectural Institute of Korea.
Shivangni, K., Kishan, L. P., and Mukul, k. (2015). Review on papercrete. IJCRD, 4 (6).
European Standard, “Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for common cements,” in BS EN standards, Brussels, 2000.
American Society for Testing and Materials “Standard Specification for Portland Cement,” in ASTM standards, Washington, D. C., 2007.
Malhotra VM., (1988). Use of fly ash, slag and condensed silica fume in North America and Europe. In: Ryan WG, editor. Proc concrete workshop 88. Int workshop on the use of fly ash, slag, silica fume and other siliceous materials in concrete July 4–6, Sydney, Australia; 23–55.
Swamy RN., (1998). Designing concrete and concrete structures for sustainable development. In: Malhotra VM, editor. Proc sixth international conference on fly ash, slag, silica fume and other natural pozzolans in concrete. Bangkok, Thailand; ACI SP-178; 1: 245–55.