Please enter verification code
Replacing Cinder Gravel as Alternative Base Course Material
American Journal of Construction and Building Materials
Volume 4, Issue 1, June 2020, Pages: 14-21
Received: Jan. 2, 2020; Accepted: Mar. 9, 2020; Published: Mar. 24, 2020
Views 567      Downloads 96
Fisseha Wagaw Maniyazawal, Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering and Technology, Bonga University, Bonga, Ethiopia
Article Tools
Follow on us
Costs relating to haulage and processing of materials have considerable impact upon economics of road construction. Hence material search is generally restricted to about 10km corridor centering on the road but materials found at this distance may not satisfy the required quality. Cinder gravels are most abundant materials found in tropical countries like Ethiopia especially in rift valley zones where there are active volcanoes. The main objective of the study was to investigating use of cinder gravels as base course material through blending with conventional base course material, CSA, and stabilization with cement. According to results of sieve analysis, ACV, flakiness index and CBR, 30% of CSA can be replaced by cinder gravels for use as GB1 material and for cement treated cinder gravels adding 6% and 8% cement make them suitable for use as CB2 and CB1 base course materials respectively, referring to their 14 day compressive strength as determined by UCS test while the mix with 10% cement satisfies US Army specification. Based on the results of the research, it is recommended that utilization of the locally available cinder gravels shall be given due consideration for upcoming road construction projects in the study area or in other locations with similar characteristics.
Marginal Materials, Cinder Gravel, Conventional Material, CSA, Cement Treated, GB1, UCS, CB1 and CB2
To cite this article
Fisseha Wagaw Maniyazawal, Replacing Cinder Gravel as Alternative Base Course Material, American Journal of Construction and Building Materials. Vol. 4, No. 1, 2020, pp. 14-21. doi: 10.11648/j.ajcbm.20200401.13
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Newill, d., Robinson, r. And kassaye Aklilu. "Experimental use of cinder gravels on roads in Ethiopia". 9th regional conference for Africa on soil mechanics and foundation engineering / Lagos, September 1987.
Ethiopian roads authority. "pavement design manual volume I: flexible pavements”, 2013.
Ethiopian roads authority. “Site investigation manual”, 2011.
Birhanu Girma. “Stabilizing cinder gravels for heavily trafficked base course”. Journal of EEA. 2009; vol. 26.
Dinku, Abebe, "The need for standardization of aggregates for concrete production in Ethiopian construction industry"). International conference on African development archives. (2005); paper 90.26.
National lime association. “Lime-treated soil construction manual: lime stabilization & lime modification”, January 4, 2010.
J. b. oza, Dr. P. J. Gundaliya. “Study of black cotton soil characteristics with cement waste dust and lime” Non-circuit branches of the 3 rd. Nirma university international conference on engineering. 2013; pp. 110–118.
Das. M. B. “Fundamentals of geotechnical engineering”. Toronto, Canada: Nelton; 2005.
Martin R. “Highway pavement materials and design”. In: Martin R, 1st. High way engineering. UK: 2003; 192-228.
D. N. Little and R. Graves, “Upgrading Marginal Aggregate Bases and High-Fines Bases with Low Levels of Stabilizers”, Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University and Vulcan Materials.
Jean Chorowicz.” The east African rift system”. Journal of African earth sciences. 2005; 43: 379–410.
John Murray Hudson. “The behavior of road base materials under repeated loading”. Thesis submitted to doctor of philosophy. October 1971.
W. Spencer. G., B. Mathew. R and I. Dennis. E.” Evaluation of laboratory durability tests for stabilized aggregate base materials”: Transportation research board 87th annual meeting: Portland cement association; 2007.
Engidasew, T. Engineering geological characterization of volcanic rocks of Ethiopian and Sardinian highland. PhD in soil defense and conservation; 2012/2013.
Efrem, G. “Stabilization of cinder with foamed bitumen and cement and its use as (sub) base for roads.” International institute for infrastructural, hydraulic and environmental engineering. 2000 delft; M. Sc. thesis TRE 100.
Department for International Development (DFID), of the UK and the Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH), Philippines.” Literature review on stabilized sub base for heavily trafficked roads”. Project report origin PR/INT/202/00.
Toolet and d Newill. “A strategy for assessing marginal quality for use in bituminous roads in the tropics”. Summer annual meeting, university of bath. September 1987: 1–27.
J. R. Cook and C. S. Gurley. “A framework for the appropriate use of marginal materials”. World road association (PIARC)-technical committee c12 seminar in Mongolia, TRL. Ltd, UK: June 2002.
AASHTO, “Standard Specification for Transportation Materials and Method of Sampling and Testing”, Part 1 Specifications, 20th Edition, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Washington D. C, 2000.
B. Gautama, D. Yuan, I. Abdalla and S. Nazarian. “Guidelines for Using Local Materials for Roadway Base and Sub base”. Center for Transportation Infrastructure Systems. The University of Texas at El Paso. 2009 association for computer methods and advances in geo-mechanics. 2008.
American association of state highway and transportation officials. Stabilization of subgrade soils and base materials AASHTO designation. 2008.
Cook J., Bishop E., Gurley C. and Ellsworth N. Promoting the use of marginal materials. Project report PR/INT/205/.2001.
Donatas C., Alfredas L., Audrius V. and Virgaudas P. Research of experimental road pavement structures. The 25th international symposium on Automation and Robotics in road construction. June, 2008.
A. A. Araya. Characterization of Unbound Granular Materials for Pavements. Master of Science in Transport and Road Engineering. 2011; IHE/TU Delft, the Netherlands.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186