Seismic Displacement Evaluation Chart Method for Caisson Quay Walls Improved by the Vibro-Compaction Method
Volume 3, Issue 2, June 2018, Pages: 11-25
Received: Aug. 4, 2018;
Accepted: Aug. 21, 2018;
Published: Dec. 21, 2018
Views 252 Downloads 43
Bin Tong, China Institute of Geo-environment Monitoring, Beijing, China
Vernon Schaefer, Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, USA
Yingjun Liu, China Ordnance Industry Survey and Geotechnical Institute, Beijing, China
Gravity type caisson walls are a type of popular but easily damaged waterfront construction structure, especially in seismic regions. Various forms of mitigation measures have been successfully and economically applied to improve their performances under the influence of soil liquefaction. Establishment of an effective, reliable, and easily-implemented liquefaction remedial design process based on a commonly used ground improvement technology is important for routine practice. To solve this problem, the vibro-compaction method, as one the most widely used accepted liquefaction remediation method, is applied as the countermeasure to improve a gravity type quay wall damaged by seismic-liquefaction in this study. More than three hundred cases of numerical analyses with variations of the improved zone configurations, improved soil properties and levels of seismic excitation loading were conducted. Based on the results of the parametric study, numerous correlations among various improved zone configurations, improved relative densities of the soils, excitation level, and improved performances of the caisson-wall structure are established. Therefore, a simple chart design procedure based on the established correlations is proposed to estimate the improved residual displacement of gravity caisson quay walls remediated by the vibro-compaction method. The results can be used as a convenient reference for liquefaction mitigation of gravity caisson wall using vibro-compaction method in routine practice.
Seismic Displacement Evaluation Chart Method for Caisson Quay Walls Improved by the Vibro-Compaction Method, Engineering Science.
Vol. 3, No. 2,
2018, pp. 11-25.
Ichii, K., Iai, S., Sato, Y., Liu, H., 2002, “Seismic Performance Evaluation Charts for Gravity Type Quay Walls,” Structural Engineering and Earthquake Engineering, JSCE, Vol. 19, No. I, 21 – 31.
Itasca. 2007. Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua, Users’ manual, MN: Itasca.
Iai, S., and Sugano, T. 2000, “Shaking table testing on seismic performance of gravity quay walls,” Proceedings of 12th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Aug 1-6.
Inagak H, Iai S, Sugano T, Yamazaki H, Inatomi T. 1996, “Performance of caisson type quay walls at Kobe port,” Special Issue of Soils and Foundations 1996; 119-136.
Alam, M. J., Towhata, I., Wassan, T. H. 2005, “Seismic behavior of a quay wall without and with a damage mitigation measure,” GSP 133 Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics.
Martin, G. R., Finn, W. D. L., and Seed, H. B. 1975, “Fundamentals of liquefaction under cyclic loading,” Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE, 101 (GT5): 423-438.
Bryne, P., Park, S. S., Beaty, M., Sharp, M., Gonzalez, L., Abdoun, T. 2004, “Numerical modeling of liquefaction and comparison with centrifuge tests,” Can. Geotechnical Journal, 41: 193-211.
Bryne, P. M. 1991, “A cyclic shear-volume coupling and pore pressure model for sand,” In Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics, St. Louis., Mo., 11-15, March. Vol. 1, pp. 47-55.
Arablouei, A., Ghalandarzadeh, A., Mostafagharabaghi, A. R., Abedi, K. (2011). “A numerical study of liquefaction induced deformation on caisson-type quay wall using a partially coupled solution.” J. of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, 133, 021101-1–021101-9.
Chu, J., Varaksin, S., Klotz, U., and Menge, P. (2009). “State of the Art Report: Construction Processes.” Proc. of 17th Int. Con. on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Alexandria, Egypt, October 5-9, 2009.
Finn, W. D., Bryne, P. M., Evans,. S, Law, T. 1996, “Some geotechnical aspects of Hyogo-ken Nanbu (Kobe) earthquake of January 17, 1995,” Can. Journal of Civil Engineering 1996; 23: 778-796.
Iwasaki, Y., Tai, M. 1996, “Strong motion records at Kobe Port Island,” Soils Foundations (Special issue on geotechnical aspects of the January 17, 1995 Hoogoken-Nambu earthquake), 1, 29-40.
Dakoulas, p., Gazetas, G. 2008, “Insight into seismic earth and water pressures against caisson quay wall,” Geotechnique, 58, No. 2, 95 -111.
Alyami, M., Wilkison, S. M., Rouainia, M., Cai, F. 2007, “Simulation of seismic behavior of gravity quay wall using a generalized plasticity model,” Proceedings of 4th International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering, June 25 -28, 2007.
Alyami, M., Rouainia, M., Wilkison, S. M. 2009, “Numerical analysis of deformation behavior of quay walls under earthquake loading,” Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 29, pp 535-536.
Look, B., 2007, Handbook of Geotechnical Investigation and Design Tables, Taylor & Francis, London, UK.
Andresen, L., Jostad, H. P., Andresen, K. 2011, “Finite element analyses applied in design of foundations and anchors for offshore structures.” International Journal of Geomechanics, Vol. 11, No. 6, 417-430.
Elias, V., Welsh, J., Wareen, J., Lukas, R., Collin, J., Berg, R., 2006, “Ground improvement methods: Reference Manual – Volume I,” NHI Course No. 13204, Federal Highway Administration.
Chen, Y. M., D. P. Xu, FLAC/FLAC3D Fundamentals and Examples, Waterpub, Inc., Beijing, 2007. (In Chinese)
Taiyab, M., Alam, M., Zbedin, M., 2012, “Dynamic Soil-Structure of Gravity Quay Wall and Effect of Densification in Liquefiable Sites,” International Journal of Geomechanics, (Accepted).
Ishihara, K. 1997, Terzaghi oration: Geotechnical aspects of the 1995 Kobe earthquake, Proc. 14th Conf. Soil Mech. Foundation Engineering, Hamburg 4, 2047-2073.
PIANC: Seismic Design Guidelines for Port Structures, Balkema 474 p, 2001.
Tong, B., Schaefer, V., 2016, Optimization of Vibrocompaction Design for Liquefaction Mitigation of Gravity Caisson Quay Walls, International Journal of GEOMECHANICS, Vol. 14, No. 4.