Structural and Geochemical Characterization of Gold Mineralized Quartz Veins in Belikombone Gold Prospect, Betare-oya Gold District, East Cameroon
Volume 5, Issue 2, June 2020, Pages: 17-26
Received: Aug. 21, 2019;
Accepted: Sep. 17, 2019;
Published: May 28, 2020
Views 87 Downloads 57
Melvin Tamnta Nforba, Geo-Technical Engineering Associates, Inc., Laurel, Maryland, USA
Suka Joe Chi, Department of Geology and Mining, Saint Monica University Institute, Buea, Cameroon
Tangko Tangko Emmanuel, Geo-Technical Engineering Associates, Inc., Laurel, Maryland, USA
Arnaud Patrice Kouske, Department of Civil Engineering, The University Institute of Technology, University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon
Au-bearing quartz veins in the Belikombone area are confined to major NW-SE orientations in schists and N-S and ENE – WSW in other host rocks. The objectives of this work were to study field, mineralogy and geochemical characteristics of gold mineralised quartz veins. Schists (chlorite rich) and gneisses (moderately magnetic) are the dominant rock types in the area with granite occurring as intrusions within the gneisses. Gold-bearing quartz veins occur in association with metamorphosed rocks ranging in composition from quartz ± gold to those that contain quartz ± gold ± sulphides ± iron-oxides ± sericite and mafic minerals. The mineralized veins contain Au from 0.50 to 25 ppm, while the quartz veins considered barren contain 0.20 ppm Au. The concentration of As in the quartz veins ranges from 0.30ppm to 10.70 ppm and it show positive correlation with Au in samples with high Au concentration. The ΣREE varies from 5.79 to 173.64 in the quartz veins. The investigated veins show evidence of multiphase deformation and it is associated with D2 deformation in the area. This structural setting suggest that the emplacement of gold mineralization occurred during the late Pan African orogeny. The main alteration types are silification, sericitization and sulphidation processes.
Melvin Tamnta Nforba,
Suka Joe Chi,
Tangko Tangko Emmanuel,
Arnaud Patrice Kouske,
Structural and Geochemical Characterization of Gold Mineralized Quartz Veins in Belikombone Gold Prospect, Betare-oya Gold District, East Cameroon, Engineering Science.
Vol. 5, No. 2,
2020, pp. 17-26.
Catheline, M., Marignac, C., Boiron, M. C., Poty, B. (1991). Herynian Au bearing quartz veins from Western Europe: the “shear zone model” revisited. Proceeding of Au. Brazil Balkema 91, 115-119.
Simard, M., Bedoin, G., Bernard, J., Hupé, A. (2006). Metallogeny of the Mont-de-L’Aigle IOCG deposit, Gaspé Peninsula, Québec, Canada. Mineralium Deposita 41, 607-636.
Kreuzer, O. P. (2006). Textures, paragenesis and wall rock alteration of lode Au deposits in the Charter Towers district, North Queensland: implication for the conditions of ore formation. Mineralium Deposita 40, 639-663.
Junks, A. J., Cooke, D. R. (2007). Geological and structural controls on Au mineralization in the Tanami district Northern Territory 42, 107-126.
Freyssinet, P. H., Lecomte, P., Edimo, A. (1989). Dispersion of gold and base metals in the Mborguene lareitic profile, East Cameron. Journal of geochemical exploration, 32, 99-116.
Suh, C. E., Lehmann B., Mafany, G. T. (2006). Geology and geochemical aspects of lode gold mineralization at Dimako–Mboscorro, SE Cameroon. Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis, 6, 295–309.
Suh, C. E. (2008). Sulphide microchemistry and hydrothermal fluid inclusion in quartz veins Batouri gold district (Southern Cameroon). Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Science 8, 19-29.
Embui, V. F., Omang, B. O., Che, V. B., Nforba, M. T., Suh E. C., (2013). Gold grade variation and strean sediment geochemistry of the Vaimba-Lidi drainage system, Northern Cameroon (West Africa). Natural Science, 5, 282-290.
Mimba, E. M, Nforba, M. T., Suh, C. E. (2014). Geochemical Dispersion of Gold in Stream Sediments in the Paleoproterozoic Nyong Series, Southern Cameroon. Science Research. Vol. 2, No. 6, 155-165. https://doi:10.11648/j.sr.20140206.12.
Stendal, H., Toteu, S. F., Frei, R., Penaye, J., Njel, U. O., Bassahak, J., Nni, J., Kankeu, B., Ngako, V., Hell, J. V. (2006). Provenance of rutile from the Yaoundé region, Neoproterozoic Pan-African belt in southern Cameroon (Central Africa). Journal of African Earth Sciences, 44, 443–458.
Kwékam, M., Liégeois, J.-P., Njonfang, E., Affaton, P., Hartmann, G., Tchoua, F. (2010). Nature, origin and significance of the Fomopéa Pan-African high-K calc-alkaline plutonic complex in the Centraal African fold belt (Cameroon). Journal of African Earth Sciences, 57, 79–95.
Toteu, S. F., Penaye, J., Djomani, Y. P. (2004). Geodynamic evolution of the Pan-African belt in central Africa with special reference to Cameroon. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 41, 73–85.
Toteu, S. F., Penaye, J., Deloule, E., Van Schmus, W. R., &Tchameni, R., (2006). Diachronous evolution of volcano-sedimentary basins north of the Congo craton: Insights from U–Pb ion microprobe dating of zircons from the Poli, Lom and Yaoundé Groups (Cameroon). Journal of African Earth Sciences, 44, 428–442.
Ngako, V., Affaton, P., Nnange, J. M., Njanko, T. (2003). Pan-African tectonic evolution in central and southern Cameroon: transpression and transtension during sinistral shear movements. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 36, 207–214.
Kankeu, B., Greiling, R. O., Nzenti, J. P. (2009). Pan-African strike–slip tectonics in eastern Cameroon—Magnetic fabrics (AMS) and structure in the Lom basin and its gneissic basement. Precambrian Research, 174, 258-272.
Salem I. A., El-Shibiny N. H., Abdel Monsef M. (2016). Mineralogical and Geochemical Studies on Manganese Deposits at Abu Ghusun Area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Journal of Geography and Earth Sciences, 4 (2), 51-74. https://doi.org/10.15640/jges.v4n2a4.
Pitfield, P. E. J., Campbell, D. G. (1996). Significance for gold exploration and structural styles of auriferous deposits in the Archean Bulawoyo-Bubi greenstone belt of Zimbabwe. Transaction Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, Section B, Applied Earth science, 105, 4152.
Oke, S. A., Akinlolu. F., Dieter R. (2014). Mineralogical and Geochemical Characterization of Gold Bearing Quartz Veins and Soils in parts of Maru Schist Belt Area, Northwestern Nigeria. Journal of Geological Research, 1 -17, https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/314214.
Groves, D. I., Goldfarb, R. J., Gebre-Mariam, M., Hagemann, S. G., & Robert, F. (1998). Orogenic gold deposits: A proposed classification in the context of their crustal distribution and relationship to other gold deposit types. Ore Geology Reviews, 13, 7-27.
Yannah, M., Suh, C. E., Mboudou, G. M. M. (2015). Quartz veins characteristics and Au mineralization within the Batouri Au District, East Cameroon. Science Research, 3 (4), 137149. https://doi:10.11648/j.sr.20150304.12.
Brito Neves, B. B., Van Schmus, W. R., Fetter, A. (2002). North western, Africa-north, east Brazil: major tectonic links and correlation problems. Journal of African Earth Sciences 34, 275-278.
Vallance, J., Boiron, M. C., Catheline, M., Verlet, M., Marignac, C., (2004). The granitic hosted Au deposit of Moulin de Chéni (Saint Yrieix district, Massif Central France): petrography, structural, fluid inclusion and oxygen isotope constraints. Mineralium Deposita 39, 265-281. https://doi:10.1007/s00126-003-0396-6.
Klein, E. L., Alves dos Santos, R., Fuzikawa, K., Angelica, R. S., (2001). Hydrothermal fluid evolution and structural control of the Guarim Au mineralization, Tapajos Province, Amazonian craton, Brazil. Mineralium Deposita 36, 149-164.
Wagner, T., Boyce, A. J., Erzinger, J. (2010). Fluid-rock interaction during formation of metamorphic quartz veins: a REE and stable isotope study from the Rhenish Massif, Germany. American Journal of Science, 310, 645–682. https://doi.10.2475/07.2010.04.
Cheong, S. (2000). General characteristics and structural evolution of metamorphic goldquartz veins in northwestern Nevada, U. S. A. Geoscience Journal 4, 135. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02910133.
Chauvet, A. (2019). Structural Control of Ore Deposits: The Role of Pre-Existing Structures on the Formation of Mineralised Vein Systems. Minerals, 9 (1), 56. https://doi.org/10.3390/min9010056.
Craw, D., Windle, S. J., Angus, P. V. (1999). Gold mineralization without quartz veins in a ductile - brittle shear zone, Macraes Mine, Otago Schist, New Zealand. Mineralium Deposita, 34, 382–394. https://DOI:10.1007/s001260050211.
Robert F., Brommecker R., Bourneetal B. F. (2007). Models and exploration methods for major gold deposit types. In Proceeding of the 5th Decennial Internal Conference on Mineral Exploration (Exploration '07) Milkereit B. (Ed). 691 – 711.
Liu, K., Yang, R., Chen, W., Liu, R., Tao, P. (2014). Trace element and REE geochemistry of the Zhewang gold deposit, southeastern Guizhou Province, China. Chini. J. Geochem. 33, 109–118. https://doi:10.1007/s11631-014-0665-3.
Krneta S., Ciobanu C. L., Cook N. J., Ehrig K., Kontonikas-Charos A. (2017). Rare Earth Element Behaviour in Apatite from the Olympic Dam Cu–U–Au–Ag Deposit, South Australia. Minerals 7, 35, 1 -26. https://doi:10.3390/min7080135.
Akande, S. O., Fakorede, O., Mucke, A. (1988). Geology and genesis of gold-bearing quartz veins at Bini Yauri and Okolom in the Pan-African domain of Western Nigeria. Geologie en Mijnbouw, 67 (1), 41–51.
Goldfarb R. J., Baker T., Dube B., Groves D. I., Hart C. J. R., Gosselin P. (2005). Distribution, character and genesis of gold deposits in metamorphic terranes. In Economic Geology 100th Anniversary Volume, Society of Economic Geologists, Littleton, Colo, USA. 407–450.