On the Mathematical Calibration of the Active Well Neutron Coincidence Counter (AWCC)
American Journal of Physics and Applications
Volume 3, Issue 4, July 2015, Pages: 121-130
Received: May 27, 2015;
Accepted: Jun. 1, 2015;
Published: Jul. 2, 2015
Views 3723 Downloads 91
Wael A. El-Gammal, Egyptian Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority, Division of Regulations and Radiological Emergencies, Department of Nuclear Safeguards and Physical Protection, Cairo, Egypt
Ahmed G. Mostafa, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Al-Azhar Univ., Cairo, Egypt
Mootaz Ebied, Atomic Energy Authority, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Division of Industrial Irradiation, Department of Nuclear Safety Research and Radiation Emergency, Cairo, Egypt
Generation of calibration curves for radiation detectors are essential in radiation spectroscopy. Such curves usually relate some characteristic quantities of measured samples (such as radioactivity of a certain isotope or its mass) with the output of the used detector (counting rates). The most direct and easiest way to generate these curves is performed using a set of suitable radioactive standard materials. Whenever standard materials are not available, mathematical calibration could be employed. In this work, a proposed model for mathematical calibration of a neutron coincidence counter (the Active Well Neutron Coincidence Counter, AWCC) was achieved using the Monte Carlo simulation method. Effects of the counter and experimental set up parameters on the simulation process were studied. The validity of the proposed model was checked using sets of nuclear material standards. The obtained modeling results are in agreement with experiments within an accuracy of better than 8.5%.
Wael A. El-Gammal,
Ahmed G. Mostafa,
On the Mathematical Calibration of the Active Well Neutron Coincidence Counter (AWCC), American Journal of Physics and Applications.
Vol. 3, No. 4,
2015, pp. 121-130.
W. El-Gammal, W. I. Zidan and E Elhakim. A proposed semi-empirical method for 235U mass calibration of the active-well neutron coincidence counter. Nuclear Instruments and Methods A565 (2006) 731.
H.O. Menlove, Description and operation manual for the active well coincidence counter, LA-7823-M, Los Alamos, 1979.
H.O. Menlove and J.E. Swansen, Nucl. Technol. 71 (1985) 497.
J.E. Swansen, P.R. Collinsworth and M.S. Krick, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 176 (1980) 555.
M.M. Stephens, J.E. Swansen and L.V. East, Shift register neutron coincidence module, LA-6121-MS, Los Alamos, 1975.
M.S. Krick, N. Ensslin, D. G. Langner, M. C. Miller, R. Siebelist, and J. E. Stewart, Active Neutron Multiplicity Analysis and Monte Carlo Calculations, Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM), Florida, USA, July 17-20, 1994.
H.O. Menlove, N. Ensslin and T.E. Sampson, Experimental comparison of the active well coincidence counter with the random driver, LA- 7882-MS, Los Alamos, 1979.
R. Sher, Active neutron coincidence counting for the assay of MTR fuel elements, LA-9665-MS, Los Alamos, 1983.
H.O. Menlove and G.E. Bosler, Application of the active well coincidence counter (AWCC) to high-enrichment uranium metal, LA-8621-MS, Los Alamos, 1981.
M.S. Krick, H.O. Menlove, J. Zick and P. Ikonomou, Measurement of enriched uranium and uranium-aluminum fuel materials with the AWCC, LA-10382-MS, Los Alamos, 1985.
M.S. Krick and P.M. Rinard, Field tests and evaluations of the IAEA active-well coincidence counter, LA-9608-MS Los Alamos, 1982.
W.G. Winn and E.T. Booth, Nucl. Inst. and Meth. 200 (2/3) (1982) 597.
J.K. Hartwell and G.D. McLaughlin, Non-destructive analysis of impure HEU-carbon samples using an active well coincidence counter (AWCC) 39, in: INMM Annual Meeting, Naples, FL, USA, 26–30, July 1998.
V. Mykhaylov, M. Odeychuk, V. Tovkanetz, V. Lapshyn, K. Thompson and J. Leicman, Use of AWCC in evaluation of unknown fissile materials, in: Symposium on International Safeguards: Verification and Nuclear Material Security, IAEA-SM-367, Vienna, Austria, 29 October - 2 November 2001.
B.A. Jensen, J. Sanders, T. Wenz and R. Buchheit, Results of active well coincidence counter cross-calibration measurements at Argonne National Laboratory-West, ANL-02/35, Argonne, 2002.
H.O. Menlove, R. Siebelist and T.R. Wenz, Calibration and performance testing of the IAEA Aquila active well coincidence counter (Unit 1), LA-13073-MS, Los Alamos, 1996.
H.O. Menlove and J.E. Stewart, A new method of calibration and normalization for neutron detector families, LA-11229-MS, Los Alamos, 1988.
P. Rinard and H. Menlove, Monte Carlo simulations of an AWCC with long fuel assemblies, in: Symposium on Safeguards and Nuclear Material Management, Seville, Spain, 4–5 May 1999.
Sara A. Pozzi, Richard B. Oberer, and Lisa G. Chiang, Monte Carlo Simulation of Measurements with an Active Well Coincidence counter, Oak Ridge National Laboratory available on “http://www.ornl.gov/~webworks/cppr/y2001 /pres/120718.pdf”.
T. D. Reilly, N. Ensslin, H. A. Smith and S. Kreiner, "Passive Nondestructive Assay of Nuclear Materials," NUREG/CR-5550, LA-UR-90-732, Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA), 1991.
N. Ensslin, W.C. Harker, M.S. Krick, D.G. Langner, M.M. Pickrell and J.E. Stewart, Application Guide to neutron multiplicity counting, LA-13422-M, Los Alamos, 1998.
D.I. Garber and R.R. Kinsey, Neutron Cross Sections, vol. II, Curves, BNL 325, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 1976.
M. Ebied, M.Sc Thesis, Investigation of Depleted Uranium Assay using Active Well Neutron Coincidence Counter, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, April 2009.
H. Tagziria and M. Looman, The ideal neutron energy spectrum of 241AmLi (α,n) 10B sources, Applied Radiation and Isotopes 70 (2012) 2395.
CANBERRA, Model JCC-51, Active well neutron coincidence counter, User’s Manual, USA, 1998.
CANBERRA, Neutron coincidence counter checklist, 3He Tube Data Sheets, USA, 1998.
CANBERRA, Model JSR-14, Neutron analysis shift register, User’s Manual, USA, 1997.
National Bureau of Standards Certificate. Standard Reference Material 969: Uranium isotopic standard reference material for gamma spectrometry measurement. (In cooperation with the Commission of the European Communities, Central Bureau for Nuclear Measurements, Geel, Belgium, and the U.S. Department of Energy, New Brunswick Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois) Gaithersburg, USA, MD 20899 (October 15, 1985) Revision dated July 27, 1985.
S. Croft, E. Alvarez, R. D. McElroy and C. G. Wilkins, the Absolute Calibration of Active Neutron Assay Instruments, Neutron Waste Management and Special Systems – Technical Papers, Canberra Industries, available on “http://www. canberra.com/literature/waste_special_systems/tech_papers/ActiveNeutronAssay-paper.pdf”
Eric Chandler Miller, Characterization of Fissionable Material using a Time-Correlated Pulse-Height Technique for Liquid Scintillators, a dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2012.
Corey Freeman, William Geist and Martyn Swinhoe, MCNPX Calculations of MTR Fuel Elements Measured in an Active Well Coincidence Counter, LA-UR-09-03916, Los Alamos, June 2009.
X-5 Monte Carlo Team, MCNP - A General Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code, Version 5, Volume II: User’s Guide, LA-CP-03-0245 (Revised 10/3/05), April 24, 2003.
X-5 Monte Carlo Team, MCNP - A General Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code, Version 5, Volume I: Overview and Theory, LA-UR-03-1987 (Revised 10/3/05), April 24, 2003.
Alexis Lazarine Reed, Medical Physics Calculations with MCNP: A primer, Los Alamos National Laboratory, LA-UR-07-4133, Summer American Nuclear Society Meeting, Boston, June 25-28, 2007.