Quality of Life in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Bulgaria: A Cross - Sectional Study
European Journal of Preventive Medicine
Volume 4, Issue 1, January 2016, Pages: 7-12
Received: Dec. 21, 2015;
Accepted: Jan. 5, 2016;
Published: Jan. 15, 2016
Views 3960 Downloads 119
Boryana Levterova, Department of Health Management, Health Economic and General Practice, Medical University of Plovdiv, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Georgy Levterov, Clinic of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, UMHAT “Kaspela” Ltd, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Elena Dragova, Faculty of Public Health, Medical University – Plovdiv, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Diabetes Mellitus is a disease that affects almost every aspect of patients' life. Socio-medical importance and continuously increasing financial costs of diabetes require a thorough research on the quality of life in these patients to optimize clinical management and increase the effectiveness of health interventions. The aim of the study is to assess the quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and A cross-sectional study was conducted in 90 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Bulgaria. Health-related quality of life was measured using the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). The study result showed that the participants’ age ranged from 32 to 88 years old, with mean of 63.0 years (standard deviation (SD) 0.96). Less than half were females (52.9%), married (74.3%) and living in urban areas (61.4%). Diabetes negative impact is observed on all life aspects. The duration of disease (diabetes duration) and diabetes complication seem to be the most influential factors which negatively and statistically significant affect all the SF-36 subscales. It concluded that better quality of life of patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 is achieved by preventing complications and effective management of chronic underlying diseases.
Quality of Life in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Bulgaria: A Cross - Sectional Study, European Journal of Preventive Medicine.
Vol. 4, No. 1,
2016, pp. 7-12.
Guariguata L, Whiting DR, Hambleton I, Beagley J, Linnenkamp U, Shaw JE. Global estimates of diabetes prevalence for 2013 and projections for 2035. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2014; 103(2): 137-49.
IDF. Diabetes Atlas. 6th ed. 2013. Available: https://www.idf.org/sites/default/files/EN_6E_Atlas_Full_0.pdf.
American Diabetes Association. (2013). Economic costs of diabetes in the US in 2012. Diabetes Care. 2013; 36(4): 1033-46.
Valov V, Doneva M, Borisova AM, Tankova T, Czech M, Manova M, Savova A, Peikova L, Petrova G. Regional differences in diabetic patients' pharmacotherapy in Bulgaria. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2014; 18(10): 1499-506.
Koeva L, Koev D. Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus in Bulgaria. Biomed Rev J. 1996; 5: 57-63.
Borissova, A-M, Shinkov A, Kovatcheva R, Vlahov J, Dakovska L, Todorov T. Changes in the Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in Bulgaria (2006–2012). Clin Med Insights Endocrinol Diabetes. 2015; 8: 41-5.
Borissova A-M, Shinkov A, Vlahov J, Dakovska L, Blajeva Е, Todorov T. Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus and Prediabetes in Bulgaria Today. Endorcinologia. 2012; 12 (4): 182-92. (In Bulgarian).
Borisova A-M, Zaharieva S, Tankova T. Recommendations for good clinical practice in diabetes. Bulgarian Society of endocrinology; 2013. (In Bulgarian).
Rubin RR, Peyrot M. Quality of life and diabetes. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 1999; 15: 205-18.
The World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment (WHOQOL): development and general psychometric properties. Soc Sci Med. 1998; 46 (12): 1569-85.
Bradley C. Importance of differentiating health status from quality of life. Lancet. 2001; 357 (9249): 7-8.
Moriarty DG1, Zack MM, Kobau R. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Healthy Days Measures - population tracking of perceived physical and mental health over time. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2003; 1: 37.
Testa MA, Simonson DC. Assessment of quality-of-life outcomes. N Engl J Med. 1996; 334 (13): 835-40.
IDF. Global guideline for managing older people with type 2 Diabetes, 2013. Available: http://www.idf.org/sites/default/files/IDF-Guideline-for-older-people-T2D.pdf.
Ware JE Jr, Sherbourne CD. The MOS 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36). I. Conceptual framework and item selection. Med Care. 1992; 30(6): 473-83.
McHorney CA, Ware JE Jr, Raczek AE. The MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36): II. Psychometric and clinical tests of validity in measuring physical and mental health constructs. Med Care. 1993; 31(3): 247-63.
McHorney CA, Ware JE Jr, Lu JF, Sherbourne CD. The MOS 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36): III. Tests of data quality, scaling assumptions, and reliability across diverse patient groups. Med Care. 1994; 32(1): 40-66.
Preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organization as adopted by the International Health Conference, New York; 1946; signed on 22 July 1946 by the representatives of 61 States (Official Records of the World Health Organization, no. 2, p. 100) and entered into force on 7 April 1948. The Definition has not been amended since 1948.
Ware JE, Kosinski M, Bayliss MS, McHorney CA, Rogers WH, Raczek A. Comparison of methods for the scoring and statistical analysis of SF-36 health profile and summary measures: summary of results from the Medical Outcomes Study. Medical care. 1995; 33(4 Suppl): AS264.
Levterova B, Dimitrova D, Levterov G, Videnova E. Measuring the quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Plovdiv: Science and youth; 2013. (In Bulgarian).
Kazis LE, Miller DR, Clark JA, Skinner KM, Lee A, Ren XS, Spiro A 3rd, Rogers WH, Ware JE Jr. Improving the response choices on the veterans SF-36 health survey role functioning scales: results from the Veterans Health Study. J Ambul Care Manage. 2004; 27(3): 263-80.
Holden L, Lee C, Hockey R, Ware RS, Dobson AJ. Longitudinal analysis of relationships between social support and general health in an Australian population cohort of young women. Qual Life Res. 2015; 24 (2): 485-92.
Bardage C, Isacson DG.). Hypertension and health-related quality of life. an epidemiological study in Sweden. J Clin Epidemiol. 2001; 54 (2): 172-81.
Orbetsova M, Stoilov P, Vassileva E, Gruev L, Raynov E et al. Atherogenic risk factors and socially significant disease. Sofia: Heart and Health; 2005.
Maddigan SL, Feeny DH, Johnson JA. Health-related quality of life deficits associated with diabetes and comorbidities in a Canadian National Population Health Survey. Qual Life Res. 2005; 14 (5): 1311-20.
Wexler DJ, Grant RW, Wittenberg E, Bosch JL, Cagliero E, Delahanty L, Blais MA, Meigs JB. Correlates of health-related quality of life in type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2006; 49 (7): 1489-97.
Papadopoulos AA, Kontodimopoulos N, Frydas A, Ikonomakis E, Niakas D. Predictors of health-related quality of life in type II diabetic patients in Greece. BMC Public Health. 2007; 7: 186.
Spasić A, Radovanović RV, Đorđević AC, Stefanović N, Cvetković T. Quality of Life in Type 2 Diabetic Patients. Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis. 2014; 31(3): 193-200.
Chittleborough CR, Baldock KL, Taylor AW, Phillips PJ; North West Adelaide Health Study Team. Health status assessed by the SF-36 along the diabetes continuum in an Australian population. Qual Life Res. 2006; 15(4): 687-94.
Woodcock AJ, Julious SA, Kinmonth AL, Campbell MJ; Diabetes Care From Diagnosis Group. Problems with the performance of the SF-36 among people with type 2 diabetes in general practice. Qual Life Res. 2001; 10(8): 661-70.
Ali S, Stone MA, Peters JL, Davies MJ, Khunti K. The prevalence of co-morbid depression in adults with Type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabet Med. 2006; 23 (11): 1165-73.
Goldney RD, Phillips PJ, Fisher LJ, Wilson DH. Diabetes, depression, and quality of life: a population study. Diabetes Care. 2004; 27 (5): 1066-70.
McCollum M, Hansen LS, Lu L, Sullivan PW. Gender differences in diabetes mellitus and effects on self-care activity. Gend Med. 2005; 2(4): 246-54.
Al Hayek AA, Robert AA, Al Saeed A, Alzaid AA, Al Sabaan FS. Factors Associated with Health-Related Quality of Life among Saudi Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Survey. Diabetes Metab J. 2014; 38 (3): 220-9.
Glasgow RE, Ruggiero L, Eakin EG, Dryfoos J, Chobanian L. Quality of life and associated characteristics in a large national sample of adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1997; 20(4): 562-7.
Thommasen HV, Berkowitz J, Thommasen AT, Michalos AC. Understanding relationships between diabetes mellitus and health-related quality of life in a rural community. Rural Remote Health. 2005; 5 (3): 441.
Williams R, Van Gaal L, Lucioni C. Assessing the impact of complications on the costs of Type II diabetes. Diabetologia. 2002; 45 (7): S13-S17.
Haffner SM, Lehto S, Rönnemaa T, Pyörälä K, Laakso M. (1998). Mortality from coronary heart disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes and in nondiabetic subjects with and without prior myocardial infarction. New England journal of medicine. 1998; 339 (4): 229-34.