Eastleigh is a suburb in Nairobi inhabited predominantly by Somalis and known for a number of activates that includes businesses, stop over of youth people from the western world on their way to Somalia or to learn the culture and get spouses. Miraa use has been associated with the Somali community. The area of study was chosen as Section 1 from the four Sections that approximately hold 9408 households. 270 households were selected with at least one youth aged between 18-25 years of age. We gave our own developed questionnaire that asked about demographic characteristics and patterns of miraa use to consenting participants. Descriptive analysis was done based on the demographic characteristics. We found that miraa use was high (47.9%) and was more prevalent among the males, those with lower educational level, the single (including the divorced and separated) and those born out of Eastleigh. We also found that miraa use was more prevalent among those whose parents were not married, living alone, with friends, relatives, parents and relatives, the unemployed, those running businesses, the self-employed and those whose families had lower income. Miraa onset was more likely at 18 years or below and was used with other psychoactive substances that include amphetamines, cannabis, heroin, cocaine, shisha, tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. A larger study should be done in this area that includes all the other sections as well. This study advises on targeting prevention of miraa use to youth younger than 18 years.
Eunice Jemalel Nyavanga,
Miraa Use Among Somali Youth Living in Eastleigh, Nairobi Kenya, European Journal of Preventive Medicine.
Vol. 6, No. 4,
2018, pp. 45-52.
Nichols, T., Khandkar, P., & Gibbons, S., (2015). The psychostimulant drug khat (Catho endulis): A mini-review. Phytochemistry Letters, 13: 127-133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytol.2015.05.016.
Getasetegn, M. (2016) Chemical composition of Catha edulis (khat): a review. Phytochemistry Reviews 15: 907. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11101-015-9435-z.
Lemma, S., Patel, S. V., Tarekegn, Y. A. Tadesse, M. G., Berhane, Y., Gelaye, B. Williams, M. A. (2012). “The Epidemiology of Sleep Quality, Sleep Patterns, Consumption of Caffeinated Beverages, and Khat Use among Ethiopian College Students,” Sleep Disorders, 2012; https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/583510.
Soboka, M., Tesfaye, M., Feyissa, T., & Hanlon, C. (2015). Khat use in People living with HIV: A facility-based cross-sectional survey from Soouth West Ethiopoia. BMC Psychiatry, 15: 69. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-015-0446-5.
Nakajima, M. Dokam, A., Alsameai, A., AlSoofi, M., Khalil, N., al’Absi, M. (2014). Severity of khat dependence among adult chewers: the moderating influence of gender and age. Journal of Ehnopharmocology; 155 (3): 1467-1472. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.07.030.
Haile, D., & Lakew, Y. (2015). Khat Chewing Practice and Associated Factors among Adults in Ethiopia: Further Analysis Using the 2011 Demographic and Health Survey. PLOS /ONE, 10 (16). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130460.
Berhanu, D., Diener-West, M., Ruff, A., Davis, W., Celentano, D. D., & Go, V. F. (2017). Associations Between Khat Use and HIV Risk and Status Among Voluntary Counseling and Testing Center in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Journal of Addiction Medicine; 11 (4): 320-327. doi: 10.1097/ADM.0000000000000304.
Kabede, D., Alem, A., Mitike, G., Enquselassie, F., Berhane, F., Abebe, Y., Ayele, R. Lemma, W., Assefa, T., & Geremicheal, T. (2005). Khat and alcohol use and risky sex behavior among in-school and out-of-school youth in Ethiopia. BMC Public Health; 5: 109. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-5-109.
Adorjan, K., Oldenwald, M., Widmann, M., Tesfaye, M., Tessema, F., Toennes, S., et al, (2017). Khat use and occurrence of psychotic symptoms in the general male population in Southwestern Ethiopia: evidence for sensitization by traumatic expereincesWorld Psychiatry, 16 (3): 323..https://doi.org/10.1002/wps.20470.
Widmann, M., Apondi, B., Musau, A., Warsame, A. H., Isse, M., Mutiso, V., Veltrup, C., Ndetei, D., & Oldenwald, M. (2017). Comorbid psychopathology and everyday functioning in a brief intervention study to reduce khat use among Somalis living in Kenya: description of baseline multimorbidity, its effects of intervention and its moderation effects on substance use. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology; 52 (11): 1425-1434. DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-017-1368-y.
Nakajima, M., Hoffman, R., & Al’Absi, M. (2017): Level of khat dependence, use patterns, and psychosocial correlates in Yemen: A Cross-sectional investigation. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal; 23 (3): 161-167.
Nakajuma, M., Jebena, M. G., Taha, M., Tesfaye, M., Gunida, E., Lemieux, A., Hoffman, R., & al’Absi, M. (2017). Correlates of khat use during pregnancy: A cross-sectional study. Addictive Behaviours; 73: 178-184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.05.008.
Manzar, D., Salahuddin, M., Sony, P., Maru, T. T., Pandi-Perumal, S. R., Moscovitch, A., & Bahammam, A. S. (2017). Sleep disturbances and memory impairment among pregnant woment consuming khat: An under-recognized problem. Annals of Thoracic Medicine; 12 (4): 247-251. doi: 10.4103/atm.ATM_24_17.
Kimani, S. T., Pate, l, N. B., & Kioy, P. G. Memory deficits associated with khat (Catha edulis) use in rodents. Metabolic Brain Disease; 31 (1): 45-52. DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/s11011-015-9738-1.
Hassan, M. A., Mohamed, K., Zipporah, N., & Hudson, L. (2014). Khat (Catha edulis) Use is Associated with the Development of Gastritis among Adults in Nairobi County, Kenya, East African Medical Journal, 91 (6): 191-201.
Jima, S. B., Tefera, T. B., & Ahmed, M. B. (2015). Prevalence of Tobacco Consumption, Alcohol, Khat (Catha Edulis) Use and High Blood Pressure among Adults in Jimma Town, South West Ethiopia. Science Journal of Public Health, 3 (5): 650-654. doi: 10.11648/j.sjph.20150305.19.
El-Menyar, A., Mekkodathikm A., Al-Thani, H., & Al-Motarreb, A. (2015). Khat Use: History and Heart Failure. Oman Medical Journal; 30 (20: 77-82. doi: 10.5001/omj.2015.18.
Samies, J., Slehria, S., Chen, X., Vaidya, S., & Saleem, N. (2016). Chronic Khat (Catha Edulis) Ingestion as a possible Triggering Agent in the Development of Autoimmune Hepatitis. Journal of Medical Cases; 7 (11): 471-474. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14740/jmc2598w.
Lifson, A. R., Workneh, S., Shenie, T., Ayana, D. A., Melaku, Z., Bezabih, L. et al, (2017). Prevalence and factors associated with use of khat: a survey of patients entering HIV treatment programs in Ethiopia. Addiction Science and Clinical Practice; 12: 3. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13722-016-0069-2.
Young, J. T., Butt, J., Hersi, A., Tohow, A., & Mohamed, D. H. (2016). Khat Dependence, Use Patterns, and Health Consequences in Australia: An Exploratory Study. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs; 77 (2): 343-349. https://doi.org/10.15288/jsad.2016.77.343.
Tesfay, K., Abera, M., Wondafrash, M., & Tesfaye, M. ((2018). Effect of Khat Use During Pregnancy on the Birth Weigh of Newborn in Jimma, Ethiopia. Internatioonal Journal of Mental Health and Addiction: 1-10. DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-018-9888-6.
Legesse, T. G., Takle, Z. J., & Best, M. G. (2017). Effect of Khat and Associated Factors on Nutritional status among Khat Chewers at Gulelle sub-city, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. International Journal of food Science and Nutirition Enginering. 7 (1): 11-18. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Duresso, S. W., Matthews, A. J., Ferguson, S. G., & Bruno, R. (2010). Is khat use disorder a valid diagnostic entity? Addiction; 111 (9): 1666-1676. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.13421.
Nakajima, M., Molla, K., Belachew, B., Mohammed, A., Hassan, A., Kroll, J., & al’Absi, M. (2017). Khat Use is Assciated with Tobacc, Alcohol, and Illicit Drug Use: A Cross-Sectional Examination in the United States. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs; 49 (5): 413-419. https://doi.org/10.1080/02791072.2017.1342155.
Mihretu, A., Teferra, S., & Fekadu, A. (2017). Problematic khat use as a possible risk factor for harmful use of other psychoactive substances: a mixed method study in Ethiopia. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention and Policy; 12: 47. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13011-017-0132-3.
Swain, S., Spracklen, K. & Lashua, B. D. (2018). Khat-chewing in liminal leisure spaces: British-Somali youth on the margins. Leisure Studies, DOI: 10.1080/02614367.2018.1455891.
Widmann, M., Warsame, A. H., Mikukica, J., von Beust,, J., Isse, M. M., Ndetei, D., al’Absi, M., & Odenwald M. G. (2014). Khat use, PTSD and psychotic symptoms among Somali refugees in Nairobi – a pilot study. Frontiers in Public Health, 2 (71): 1-10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2014.00071.
Adane, W. G., Alemie, G. A., W/yhonnes, S. M., Gelaw, Y. S. (2016). Prevalence and associated factors of khat use among university students in the University of Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. Journal of Substance Use; 22 (2): 176-181. https://doi.org/10.3109/14659891.2016.1166273.
Kassim, S. Jawad, M., Croucher, R. & Akl, E. A. (2015). The Epidemiology of Tobacco Use among Khat Users: A systematic Review. Biomed Research International; 2015 (ID 313692): 9 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/313692.
Kinoti, K. E., Jason, L. A., & Harper, G. W. (2011). Determinants of Alcohol, Khat, and Bhang Use in Rural Kenya. African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies; 2 (10); 107-118.
Chege, R. W., Mungai, P. G., & Oresi, S. N. An investigation of the factors contributing to drug and substance abuse among the youth in Kenya: A survey of select rehabilitation centers in Mombasa County. International Journal of Public Health; 1 (5): 53-70.
Mahfour, M. S., Rahim, B. E. A., Solan, Y. M. H., Makeen, A. M,. & Alsanosy, R. M. (2015). Khat Chewing Habits in the Population of the Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia: Prevalence and Associated Factors. PLOS/ ONE; 10 (8): 1-8. doi: 10.1371/journal.Pone.0134545.
Kassa, A., Taddesse, F. and Yilma, A. (2014). Prevalence and factors determining psychoactive substance (PAS) use among Hawassa University (HU) undergraduate students, Hawassa Ethiopia. BMC Public Health; 14: 1044. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-1044.
Gbremariam, T. B., Mruts, K. B . & Neway, T. K. (2018). Substance use and associated factors among Debre Berhan University Students, Central Ethiopia. Substance Abuse Treatment, prevention and Policy; 13: 13. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13011-018-0150-9.