Nutritional Status and Associated Feeding Practices among Children Aged 6-24 Months in a Selected Community in Sri Lanka: A Cross Sectional Study
European Journal of Preventive Medicine
Volume 3, Issue 2-1, March 2015, Pages: 15-23
Received: Dec. 6, 2014;
Accepted: Dec. 30, 2014;
Published: Feb. 12, 2015
Views 4464 Downloads 271
Nishani H. Ubeysekara, Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ruhuna, Matara, Sri Lanka
Renuka Jayathissa, Nutrition Division, Medical Research Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka
Champa J. Wijesinghe, Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ruhuna, Matara ,Sri Lanka
Background: In Sri Lanka, nutritional indicators are static compared to other health indicators. Under nutrition among children less than five years remains a common public health problem. Poor nutritional status of children is associated with various factors which are preventable. Purpose of this study was to determine the nutritional status of children aged 6-24 months in a selected health unit area and to describe the associated feeding practices. Methods and materials: A cross sectional study was conducted among mothers of 428 children attending 24 randomly selected field weighing posts in Akuressa health division, for routine growth monitoring. Nutritional status of the children was assessed with anthropometric measurements and WHO growth charts. Other data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Results: Prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight in the sample was 17%, 17.1% and 21.3% respectively. Mean age of exclusive breast feeding was 5.8 months and prevalence of exclusive breast feeding for 6 months was 88.8%. Mean age of starting complimentary feeding was 6 months and majority (75.5%) started semisolids as the first food. A majority (75.8%) of the mothers practiced proper feeding during infections. Wasting was significantly associated with male gender (p<0.01), increasing age of the child (p<0.05) and late introduction of fat and oils into the diet (after 8 months of age) (p<0.001). Underweight was associated with male gender (p<0.001), increasing age (p<0.05) and late introduction of fat and oils into diet (after 8 months of age) (p<0.05). Stunting was only associated with male gender (p<0.05). Conclusion: Under nutrition among children is common in this age group. Some of the feeding practices are associated with poor nutritional status and these practices should be improved with effective interventions.
Nishani H. Ubeysekara,
Champa J. Wijesinghe,
Nutritional Status and Associated Feeding Practices among Children Aged 6-24 Months in a Selected Community in Sri Lanka: A Cross Sectional Study, European Journal of Preventive Medicine. Special Issue: New Frontiers of Public Health from the Pearl of Indian Ocean, Sri Lanka.
Vol. 3, No. 2-1,
2015, pp. 15-23.
UNICEF. The state of world children, 2007 report.http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/The_State_of_the_Worlds__Children__2007_e.pdf
Food and Agriculture organization. Annual report.1992
Onis M, Blössner M, Borghi E, Frongillo EA, Morris R, Estimates of Global Prevalence of Childhood Underweight in 1990 and 2015.JAMA. 2004; 291(21):2600-2606. http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=198842
UNICEF.Improving child nutrition. The achievable omperative for global progress; 2013 http://data.unicef.org/corecode/uploads/document6/uploaded_pdfs/corecode/NutritionReport_April2013_Final_29.pdf)
MRI. Nutrition Report; 1998.
Department of census and statistics. Demographic and Health Survey report; 2006
WHO, World Health Organization. WHO. UNICEF, World Bank joint estimates, data sheet, 2014. Retrieved from who.int/nutgrowthdb/estimates
Jesmin A, Yamamoto SS, Malik AA and Haque MD. Prevalence and Determinants of Chronic Malnutrition among Preschool Children: A Cross-sectional Study in Dhaka City, Bangladesh. J Health Popul Nutr. Oct 2011; 29(5): 494–499.
Bhuriya A., Woksynalak B., De Soysa, et al. Socioeconomic Determinants of Childhood nutritional Status. Food and Nutrition Bulletin; 1986, (3), 3-7
Powel LA, Grantham S. The Etiology of Nutritional Status and Development in Young Children in Kingston, Jamaica, American Journal of clinical nutrition;1985, 41, 22 -30
Gopaldas T, Patel P, Bakshi U. Selected economic environmental, maternal and child factors, associated with nutritional status of infants and toddlers, Food and Nutrition Bulletin; 1988, 10(4), 29-34.
Department of census and statistics, Ministry of Planning and Implementation in collaboration with Ministry of Health. Preliminary report of Demographic and Health Survey; 1993
Weerasinghe C. Socio economic and cultural factors contributing to malnutrition, Dissertation for MSc Nutrition; 1981
Kocturak T, Attained weight for age position and selected background, Journal of tropical pediatrics; 1988, 34, 244-247
UNICEF. Situational Analysis of children and women in Sri Lanka; 1987.
Knip M, Akerblom HK. Early nutrition and later diabetes risk. In: B.Koletzko, P.Dodds, M. Ashwell, H. Akerblom, Ed. Early nutrition its later consequences: 2005 new Koletzko ISBN 1402035349.pdf
WHO. Complimentary feeding- family food for breast fed children. Geneva: 2000
Wikramanayaka TW. Nutrition throughout the life cycle; 2007 19, 2-26
WHO. Global Strategy for infant and young child feeding Geneva: 2003. World Health Organization
Jayatissa R., Hossain M, Nanayakkara L. Assessment of nutritional status and associated factors in Nothern province. Medical research institute in collaboration with UNICEF and Ministry of health, Sri Lanka; 2012
UNICEF. UNICEF Status of children's nutrition in Sri Lanka; 2013
Peiris TDR. and Wijesinghe DGN. Nutritional Status of fewer than 5 Year-Old Children and its Relationship with Maternal Nutrition Knowledge in Weeraketiya DS division of Sri Lanka. Tropical Agricultural ResearchVol.; 2010, 21(4): 330 - 339
Ediriweera T, Samaranayaka TSP, Perera MSA, Sivayogan, Perceptions and experience related to childhood feeding practices. A peri urban experience .SriLankan Family Physician; 2005(26) pg34-37.
Cai X., Wardlaw T, Brown, DW, Global trends in exclusive breastfeeding, International Breastfeeding Journal 2012, 7:12 doi: 10.1186/1746-435Retrieved from http://www.internationalbreastfeedingjournal.com/content/7/1/12
UNICEF. Global database. Infant and young child feeding. Retrieved from data.unicef.org; 2014
Fernando DN, Soysa PE, 1986. Factors influencing infant feeding patterns in Sri Lanka, Ceylon Medical Journal; 1986, 29(2), 81-88
Ministry ofhealth . Food based dietery guidelines, nutrition unit Ministry of health in collaboration with WHO.2011.pg 62-66
Dubbagh A, Ebrahims GT, The preventable antecedents of child malnutrition.
Gigulani ERG, Sebbin CF, Golden M et al. The malnourished children of the urban, squatter families, journal of Tropical Pediatrics. 1980, 26 (1), 139-143.
Wikramanayaka TW, Gunawardena D G, Wikramasingha N. June,Factors influencing the nutritional status of infants and pre school children of the urban poor, Ceylon Journal of medical science;1989, (01), 33-34
Nestle P S, Rathnayaka RMK. Nutrition and Health Status of Children, Nutrition and Poverty division, Ministry of policy Planning and Implementation, Sethsiripaya, Battaramulla; 1997, 122
Shumey A, Demissie M. , BerhaneY. Timely initiation of complementary feeding and associated factors among children aged 6 to 12 months in Northern Ethiopia: an institution-based cross-sectional study, BMC Public Health 2013, 13:1050 retrieved from http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/13/1050
Tamiru D, Aragu D, Belachew T, Survey on the Introduction of Complementary Foods to Infants within the First Six Months and Associated Factors in Rural Communities of Jimma Arjo, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. Vol. 2, No. 2, 2013, pp. 77-84.doi: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20130202.18