Iodine Deficiency in Shendi Area in River Nile State, Northern Sudan
European Journal of Preventive Medicine
Volume 3, Issue 6, November 2015, Pages: 193-196
Received: Oct. 10, 2015; Accepted: Oct. 21, 2015; Published: Nov. 19, 2015
Views 3281      Downloads 89
Faroug Bakheit Mohamed Ahmed, Departmentof Biochemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Shendi University, Shendi, Sudan
Esam-eddin Bakheit Mohamed Ahmed, Departmentof ENT, Faculty of Medicine, Shendi University, Shendi, Sudan
Article Tools
Follow on us
The study was conducted to assess iodine status of Shendi area inhabitants by determination of urinary iodine excretion of Shendi basic school children. Shendi area was divided into four geographical zones according to the difference in water sources.353pupils were included in the study. Most of cases (68.6%) showed a urine iodine concentration between 10 - 30 µg/dl (normal). 7.9% of cases had urinary iodine excretion more than 30 µg/dl (above normal) and 23.5% of children were suffering from iodine deficiency; 16.4% of them had mild iodine deficiency, 4.5% of pupils showed moderate iodine deficiency and 2.6 % had severe iodine deficiency according to WHO, 2001 standard. The high urinary iodine excretion was in the east of Shendi (23.40 ± 30.64 µg/dl) and the low urinary iodine excretion was in the north of Shendi (13.86 ± 3.88 µg/dl).Analysis of water samples from study zones showed some minerals which are goitrogenic such as fluoride and nitrate.
Shendi Area, Iodine, Goitrogenic
To cite this article
Faroug Bakheit Mohamed Ahmed, Esam-eddin Bakheit Mohamed Ahmed, Iodine Deficiency in Shendi Area in River Nile State, Northern Sudan, European Journal of Preventive Medicine. Vol. 3, No. 6, 2015, pp. 193-196. doi: 10.11648/j.ejpm.20150306.16
Copyright © 2015 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Andersson M., Takkouche B., Egli I., Allen H. and Benoist B. (2005).Current global iodine status and progress over the last decade towards the elimination of iodine deficiency. Bull. World Health Organ. 83 (7): 518–25. PMC, 2626287, PMID16175826.
Felig P. and Lawrence A. (2001). Endemic goitre. Endocrinology &metabolism. McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 978-0-07-02200-1.
Griffing G. T. (2008). Iodine deficiency, Authors and editors: Stephanie L. Lee and. Updated: Apr 22, 2008.
Patrick L. (2008). Iodine: deficiency and therapeutic considerations. Altern Med Rev 13 (2): 116. PMID 18590348.
Qian M., Wang D., and Watkins W.E. (2005).The effects of iodine on intelligence in children: a meta-analysis of studies conducted in China. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 14 (1): 32–42.
Vandam J.P.M. (2001). The epidemiology of thyroid disease. Oxford journal medicine. British Medical Bulletin. vol. 99(1),39-51.
Walker S. P., Wachs T. D. and Gardner J. M.(2007). Child development: risk factors for adverse outcomes in developing countries. Lancet 2007; 369:145.
World Health Organization. (2001) Assessment of iodine deficiency disorders and monitoring their elimination. A guide for programmers managers. Geneva: WHO,. (WHO/NHD/01.1.).
World Health Organization (2004).Micronutrient deficiencies, Iodine deficiency disorders. The WHO electronic Library of Evidence for Nutrition Actions.
World Health Organization (2008).Iodine: deficiency and therapeutic considerations. Altern Med Rev 13 (2): 116. PMID 18590348.
Zimmermann M.B. (2009). Iodine deficiency. Endocr. Rev,30:367
Zonenberg A., Zarzycki W., Telejko B., Modzelewska A., Nikolajuk A., Rybaczuk M., Dzieciol J., Siewko K., Kinalska I & Gorska M. (2007). The changes in the incidence of nodular goitre, thyroid cancer and urine excretion of iodine in the inhabitants of north eastern Poland in 1997 and 2005.Endocrine Abstracts, 14 P328.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186