The current study investigates vowel durations of Arabic- speaking Broca’s aphasics. Three subjects diagnosed with Broca’s aphasia and three normal speakers participated in this study. Vowel durations of the short Arabic vowels (/i/, /a/, /u/) preceding voiced and voiceless fricatives were measured and analyzed. The effects of voicing on vowel duration are also investigated. The results show that the normal speakers as well as Broca’s aphasics complied with the phonological rule, vowels being longer preceding voiced fricatives. It is also demonstrated that vowel durations were significantly greater for Broca’s aphasics compared to normal speakers. Finally, this study is brought to bear on several aspects concerning timing and prosodic impairments of Broca’s aphasic speech. The finding may also have clinical applications concerning speech and language therapy in Palestine.
Acoustical Analysis of Vowel Duration in Palestinian Arabic Speaking Aphasics, American Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience.
Vol. 2, No. 1,
2014, pp. 13-17.
Alghamdi M: A spectrographic analysis of Arabic vowels: A cross-dialect study. Journal of King Saud University: Arts 1998, 10: 3-24.
Baum: Consonant and vowel discrimination by brain-damaged individuals: Effects of phonological segmentation. Journal of Neurolinguistics2002, 15: 447-461.
Baum, S., & Boyczuk, J: Speech timing subsequent to brain damage: Effects of utterance length and complexity. Brain and Language1999, 67: 30-45.
Boersma, P. &Weenink, D: Praat: Doing phonetics by computer (version5.1.43) [computer program]. Retrieved from /http://www.praat.org, 2010.
Collins, M., Rosenbek, J., & Wertz, R: Spectrographic analysis of vowel and word duration in apraxiaof speech. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 1983, 26: 217–224.
Danly, M., & Shapiro, B: Speech prosody in Broca’s aphasia. Brain and Language 1982, 16: 171–190.
Dressler, R., Buder, E., Cannito, M., Marquardt, T., & Strauss, M: Variability inrepeated word productions: Comparing speakers with fluent and nonfluent aphasia. Poster presented at the 10th Biennial Conference on Motor Speech, SanAntonio, TX, 2000.
Ferguson, S., &Kewley-Port, D: Talker differences in clear and conversational speech: Acoustic characteristics of vowels. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research2007, 50: 1241-1255.
Flege, J. & Port, R: Cross-language phonetic interference: Arabic toEnglish. Language and Speech1981, 24:125-146.
Gandour J., & Dardarananda, R: Prosodic Disturbance in Aphasia: Vowel Length in Thai. Brain and Language1984b,23: 206-224.
Goodglass, H., & Kaplan, E: The assessment of aphasia and related disorders. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 1972.
HazanV.,& Markham, D: Acoustic-phonetic correlates of talker intelligibility for adults and children. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America2004, 102:3108-3118.
Hetzron: The Semitic Languages. New York: Routledge, 1983.
Hixon, T., Weismer, G., &Hoit, J: Preclinical speech science: Anatomy, physiology, acoustics, perception. San Diego, CA: Plural Publishing Inc, 2008.
House, A: On vowel duration in English. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 1961, 33: 1174–1178.
Hussain, A: An experimental investigation of some aspects of the sound systemof the Gulf Arabic dialect with special reference to duration. Thesis (PhD)University of Essex1985.
Kent, R., & Rosenbek, J: Prosodic disturbance and neurologic lesion. Brain and Language 1982, 15: 259– 291.
Ladefoged ,P: Preliminaries to Linguistic Phonetics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971.
Ladefoged, P: A course in phonetics. 5th ed. Boston: Wadsworth, 2006.
LindblomB: Vowel duration and a model of lip mandible coordination. Quaterly Progress & Staus Report Speech Transmission Laboratory 1967, 4: 1-29.
Lehisie, I: Suprasegmentals. M.I.T. press, 1970.
Luria, A: Higher Cortical Functions in Man. New York: Basic Books, 1966.
Magen, H. & Blumstein, S: Effects of speaking rate on the vowel length distinction in Korean. Journal of Phonetics 1983, 21: 387-409.
Maxwell, O., & Fletcher, J:Acoustic and durational properties of Indian English vowels. World English 2009, 28: 52-69.
Metoui, M: Phono Lab: Computer program zurArtikulatorisch-Akustischen Date nanalyse. Arbeitsberichte des InstitutsfürAllgemeine und Vergleichende Sprachwissenschaft der Universität Mainz 1995, 1: 1-100.
Mitleb, F: Vowel length contrast in Arabic and English: A spectrographictest. Journal of Phonetics 1984, 12: 229-235.
Mok, P: Effects of vowel duration and vowel quality on vowel-to-vowel coarticulation. Language and Speech 2011, 5: 527-545.
Mysak, E: Pathologies of the speech systems. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkin, 1976.
Paradis, M: The assessment of bilingual aphasia. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates1987.
Ryalls, J: Motor Aphasia: Acoustic Correlates of Phonemic Disintegration in Vowels. Neuropsychologia 1981,19:365-374.
Ryalls, J: An Acoustic Study of Vowel Production in Aphasia. Brain andLanguage 1986, 29: 48-67.
Seddoh, S: Prosodic disturbance in aphasia: speech timing versus intonation production. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics2004, 18: 17–38.
Seddoh, S: Conceptualisation of deviations in intonation production in aphasia. Aphasiology 2008, 22:1294–1312.
Shankweiler D., Harris, K., Ni, W, Byrd, D., &Avrutin, S: Production inBroca's aphasia: A case study of syntactic and phonetic aspects. Brain and Language 1996, 55: 14-16.
Shinn, P., & Blumstein, S: Phonetic disintegration in aphasia: Acoustic analysis of spectralcharacteristics for place of articulation. Brain and Language 1983, 20: 90–114.
TsaoY.,Weismer, G., &Iqubal, K: The effect of intertalker speech rate on acoustic vowel space. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 2006, 119:1074-1082.
Williams S., & Seaver, J: A comparison of speech sound durations in three syndromes of aphasia. Brain and Language1986, 29: 171-182.