Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among School Children in Port Harcourt, Nigeria
American Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience
Volume 3, Issue 2, March 2015, Pages: 23-29
Received: Feb. 2, 2015;
Accepted: Feb. 11, 2015;
Published: Feb. 28, 2015
Views 4297 Downloads 253
Edward Achinike Daniel Alikor, Department of Paediatrics, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
Angela Ine Frank-Briggs, Department of Paediatrics, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
Boma Alali Ngozi Okoh, Department of Paediatrics, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral disorder of childhood and one of the most prevalent chronic health conditions affecting school-aged children. With varying prevalence rates around the world, this study seeks to determine the prevalence of ADHD in primary school children in Port Harcourt, Southern Nigeria. It was a school – based descriptive cross sectional study using the Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Teacher Rating Scale. A two – staged stratified sampling technique was used to recruit pupils aged 4 – 18 years from four selected primary schools. A total of 884 pupils were studied, consisting of 452 (51.1%) males and 432 (48.9%) females. Seven (0.8%) had ADHD, out of which 6 (85.7%) had predominantly inattentive, 2 (28.6%) had predominantly hyperactive-impulsive and 1 (14.3%) had the combined subtype. Four (0.9%) out of 432 females compared to 3 (0.7%) out of 452 males had ADHD (p = 0.475). Six (1.2%) out of the 483 pupils equal to or above 10 years of age had ADHD compared to 1 (0.2%) out of the 401 pupils less than 10 years of age (p = 0.098). Oppositional & Conduct disorders and Anxiety / Depression were found to be more prevalent in children with ADHD (42.9% vs. 16.3% and 28.6% vs. 10.5% respectively). The study showed that ADHD does occur in children in Southern Nigeria and is associated with other psychiatric co-morbidities as in other parts of the world.
Edward Achinike Daniel Alikor,
Angela Ine Frank-Briggs,
Boma Alali Ngozi Okoh,
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among School Children in Port Harcourt, Nigeria, American Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience.
Vol. 3, No. 2,
2015, pp. 23-29.
American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition. Arlington, VA., American Psychiatric Association, 2000.
American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition. Arlington, VA., American Psychiatric Association, 2013.
Cunningham NR, Jensen P. Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF editors. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 19th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier; 2011. p.108 – 111.
Polanczyk G, de Lima MS, Horta BL, Biederman J, Rohde LA. The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: a systematic review and metaregression analysis. Am J Psychiatry. 2007; 164(6):942-948.
Polanczyk GV, Willcutt EG, Salum GA, Kieling C, Rohde LA. ADHD prevalence estimates across three decades: an updated systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Int. J. Epidemiol. (2014) 43 (2): 434-442.
Willcutt EG. The Prevalence of DSM-IV Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-Analytic Review. Neurotherapeutics. Jul 2012; 9(3): 490–499.
Ambuabunos E A, Ofovwe E G, Ibadin M O. Community survey of attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder among primary school pupils in Benin City, Nigeria. Ann Afr Med 2011; 10: 91-6.
Adewuya AO, Famuyiwa OO. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among Nigerian primary school children: prevalence and co-morbid conditions. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007 Feb; 16(1): 10-5.
Moina BS, Pelham WE, Gnagy EM, Thompson AL, Marshal MP. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder risk for heavy drinking and alcohol use disorder is age specific. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2007; 31(4): 643-54.
Wolraich ML, Feurer ID, Hannah JN, Pinnock TY, Baumgaertel A. 1998. Obtaining systematic teacher reports of disruptive behavior disorders utilizing DSM-IV. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 26(2):141–152.
Wolraich ML1, Bard DE, Neas B, Doffing M, Beck L. The psychometric properties of the Vanderbilt attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder diagnostic teacher rating scale in a community population. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2013 Feb; 34(2): 83-93.
Schaughency E, McGee R, Raja SN, Feehan M, Silva PA. Self-reported inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity at ages 15 and 18 years in the general population. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1994; 33: 173–184.
Goodman R, Slobodskaya H, Knyazev G: Russian child mental health: a cross-sectional study of prevalence and risk factors. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2005; 14:28–33.
Pondé MP, Freire ACC. Prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in schoolchildren in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Arq. Neuro-Psiquiatr. 2007; 65(2A): 240 – 244.
Juneja M, Sairam S, Jain R. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Adolescent School Children. Indian Pediatr 2014;51: 151-152.
Venkata JA, Panicker AS. Prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in primary school children. Indian J Psychiatry 2013; 55: 338-42.
Bakare MO. Attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms and disorder (ADHD) among African children: a review of epidemiology and co-morbidities. Afr J Psychiatry. 2012; 15:358-361.
Brown RT, Freeman WS, Perrin JM, et al. Prevalence and assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in primary care settings. Pediatrics 2001; 107: E43.
Graetz BW, Sawyer MG, Baghurst P. Gender differences among children with DSM-IV ADHD in Australia. J Amer Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2005; 44: 159-168.
Souza I, Pinheiro MA, Denardin D, Mattos P, Rohde LA. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and comorbidity in Brazil Comparisons between two referred samples. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2004; 13:243–248.
Al Hamed JH, Taha AZ, Sabra AA, Bella H. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among Male Primary School Children in Dammam, Saudi Arabia: Prevalence and Associated Factors. J Egypt Public Health Assoc. 2008; 83(3 & 4): 165 – 182.
Walker S, Venter A, Van der Walt A, Esterhuyse KGF. Prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology and psychiatric co-morbidity among adolescents diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. South African Journal of Psychiatry. 2011;17(1):24-28.
Eapen V, Mabrouk AA, Zoubeidi T, Sabri S, Yousef S, Al-Ketbi J et al. Epidemiological Study of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among School Children in the United Arab Emirates. Journal of Medical Sciences. 2009; 2(3): 119-127