The Effect of Vestibular Stimulation Exercises on Balance, Coordination, and Agility in Children with Down Syndrome
American Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience
Volume 6, Issue 2, June 2018, Pages: 28-32
Received: Apr. 30, 2018;
Accepted: May 15, 2018;
Published: May 31, 2018
Views 1699 Downloads 348
Kathy Carter, Department of Health and Sport Science, University of Louisville, Louisville, USA
Sarah Sunderman, Department of Health and Sport Science, University of Louisville, Louisville, USA
Stefanie Wooten Burnett, Department of Health and Sport Science, University of Louisville, Louisville, USA
Background. Children with Down syndrome (DS) demonstrate vestibular, sensory, motor and perceptual impairments which manifests as decreased levels of balance, strength, and motor coordination. Together these issues may decrease functional ability leading to more sedentary lifestyles. Use of vestibular stimulation therapy has been attempted to assist in improving motor control and balance in this population. Objective. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a vestibular stimulation exercise program on balance, coordination and agility in children with DS. Methods. Seventeen children with DS were recruited from two summer enrichment programs and were divided into two groups based on age (group 1: 9.9 yrs ±2.8; group 2: 18.4 yrs. ±1.7). Assessments were completed using BOT2 subtests for balance, bilateral and upper limb coordination, and agility prior to and after six weeks of twice weekly vestibular stimulation exercises. Results. Both groups showed improvement in upper limb coordination and agility, while group 2 demonstrated improvement in one of the balance subtests. Conclusion. These results suggest a vestibular stimulation exercise program could increase balance and agility in children with DS and possibly assist in increasing their functional ability.
Stefanie Wooten Burnett,
The Effect of Vestibular Stimulation Exercises on Balance, Coordination, and Agility in Children with Down Syndrome, American Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience.
Vol. 6, No. 2,
2018, pp. 28-32.
National down Syndrome Society. www.ndsr.org/about-down-syndrome/down-syndrome-facts/. retrieved June 2017.
Nadkarni, D. (2012). Enhancing eye-hand coordination with therapy intervention to improve visual-spatial abilities using 'The retraining approach' in children with Down syndrome: Three case studies. Disability, CBR & Inclusive Development Journal, 23 (2), 107-120.
El-Maksoud, G., Abd-Elmonen, A., & Rezk-Allah, S. (2016) Effect of individual and group sensory-perceptual motor training on motor proficiency and quality of life in children with Down syndrome. International Journal of Therapies and Rehabilitation Research, S (4), 37-45.
Sacks, B., & Buckley, S. (2003). What do we know about the movement abilities of children with Down syndrome? Down Syndrome News and Update, 2(4), 131-141.
Uyanik, M., Bumin, G., & Kayihan, H. (2003). Comparison of different therapy approaches in children with Down syndrome. Pediatrics International, 45, 68-73.
Costa, A. C. (2011). An assessment of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in persons with Down syndrome. Experimental Brain Research, 214(2), 199-213. doi:10. 1007/s00221-011-2820-y.
Maher, K. (2015). Vestibular stimulation systems and methods of use. US9183756 B2.
Menear, K. (2007). Parents’ perceptions of health and physical activity needs of children with Down syndrome. Down Syndrome Research and Practice, 12(1), 60-68.
Blaser, S., Propst, E., Martin, D., Feigenbaum, A., James, A., Shannon, P., & Popsin, B. (2006). Inner ear dysplasia is common in children with Down syndrome (trisomy 21). Largyngoscope, 116, 2113-2119.
Han, F., Yu, H., Zhang, J., Tian, C., Schmidt, C., Nava, C., Davisson, M., & Zheng, L. (2009). Otitis media in a mouse model for Down syndrome. International Journal of Experimental Pathology, 90, 480-488.
Schubert, M. C., & Minor, L. B. (2004). Vestibulo-ocular physiology underlying vestibular hypofunction. Physical Therapy, 84(4), 373-385.
Meyer, C. (2012). Minds-in-Motion, the Maze Handbook. Minds-in-Motions, Inc. Press.
Vidoni, C., Lorenz, D., & Terson de Paleville, D. (2014). Incorporating a movement skill program into a preschool daily schedule. Early Childhood Development & Care Journal, 184(8), 1211-1222.
Bruinincks, R. H., & Bruininks, B. D. (2005). Test of motor proficiency. Manual (2nd ed.). Minneapolis, MN: Pearson Assessments.
Connolly, B. H., Morgan, S. B., Russell, F. F., & Fullinton, W. L. (1993). A longitudinal study of children with Down syndrome who experienced early intervention programming. Physical Therapy, 73(3), 170-179; discussion 179-181.
Gupta, S., Rao, B. K., & Kumaran, S. (2011). Effect of strength and balance training in children with Down's syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. Clinical Rehabilitation, 25(5), 425-432. doi: 10.1177/0269215510382929
Wuang, W. Y., & Ju, Y. H. (2002). Promoting balance and jumping skills in children with Down syndrome. Perceptual Motor Skills, 94(2), 443-448. doi:10. 2466/pms. 2002. 94. 2. 443.
Kantner, R., Clark, D., Allen L., & Chase, M. (1976). Effects of vestibular stimulation on nystagmus response and motor performance in the developmentally delayed infant. Physical Therapy, 56, 414-421.
Mclean, W., & Baumeister, A. (1982). Effects of vestibular stimulation on motor development and stereotyped behavior of developmentally delayed children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 10, 229-245.
Wuang, Y., Chiang, C., Su, C., & Wang, C. (2011). Effectiveness of virutal reality using Wii gaming technology in children with Down syndrome. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 23, 312-321.
Silva, V., Campos, C., Sa, A., Cavadas, M., Pinto, J., Simoes, P., Machado, S., Murillo-Rodriguez, E., & Barbosa-Rocha, N. (2017). Wii-based exercise program to improve physical fitness, motor proficiency and functional movility in adults with Down syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 61(9), 755-765.
Berg, P., Becker, T., Martian, A., Primrose, K. D., & Wingen, J. (2012). Motor control outcomes following Nintendo Wii use by a child with Down syndrome. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 24(1), 78-84. doi:10. 1097/PEP. 0b013e31823e05e6
Lin, H., & Wuang, Y. (2012). Strength and agility training in adolescents with Down syndrome: A randomized controlled trial. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33, 2236-2244.
Jankowicz-Szymanska, A., Mikolajczyk, E., Wojtanowski, W. (2012). The effect of physical training on static balance in young people with intellectual disability. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33, 675-681. doi.org/10. 1016/j.ridd. 2011. 11. 015.
Aizawa, C., Morales, M., Lundberg, C., Soares de Moura, M., Pinto, F., Voos, M., & Hasue, R. ( 2017). Conventional physical therapy and physical therapy based on reflex stimulation showed similar results in children with myelomeningocele. Arq. Neuro-Psiquiatr. 75(3), 160-166.
Wuang, T., & Tsai, H. (2017). Sensorimotor and visual perceptual functioning in school-aged children with Williams syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 61(4), 348-362.
Hosseine, S., Ghoochani, B., Talebian, S., Pishyare, E., Haghgoo, H., Meymand, R., & Zeinalzadeh, A. (2015). Investigating the effects of vestibular stimulation on balance performance in children with cerebral palsy: A randomized clinical trial study. Journal of Rehabilitation Sciences and Research, 2, 41-46.