Behavioral Consequences of Chronic Stress and Effects of Antidepressant Treatment on Animal Models of Depression
American Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience
Volume 1, Issue 1, July 2013, Pages: 5-13
Received: Jun. 24, 2013;
Published: Jul. 10, 2013
Views 3289 Downloads 219
Ritabrata Banerjee, Raja Peary Mohan College, Uttarpara, Hooghly, University of Calcutta, West Bengal-712258, India
Somoday Hazra, Raja Peary Mohan College, Uttarpara, Hooghly, University of Calcutta, West Bengal-712258, India
Sourav Kumar, Raja Peary Mohan College, Uttarpara, Hooghly, University of Calcutta, West Bengal-712258, India
Anup K. Ghosh, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, West Bengal-700032, India
Amal C. Mondal, Raja Peary Mohan College, Uttarpara, Hooghly, University of Calcutta, West Bengal-712258, India
Major depression has a high prevalence and a high mortality. In order to understand the molecular changes underlying major depression animal models are needed. The different animal models of depression simulate the etiology and replicates symptoms, course and treatment of human depression properly. In this study, we investigated stress-induced depressogenic induction among the rats using Shuttle Box Escape Test, Open Field Test (OFT) and Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) Test. Fluoxetine hydrochloride (FLX), an antidepressant was administered chronically to determine antidepressant mediated recovery of their behavioral homeostasis. In addition, all the behavioral tests demonstrated a variety of specific symptoms like changes in locomotor activity, impaired learning ability and cognition deficit etc. From these findings, we can conclude that chronic inescapable foot-shocks at 0.8mA intensity for 15 sec duration are the most effective stressor to produce animal model of depression. After exposure to chronic foot-shocks, FLX mediated recovery strengthen our findings. In addition, the rats were screened through shuttle box escape test that mimic depressive-like behavior properly in animals. Our observation clearly corroborates well with the learned helplessness (LH) paradigm. So, the animal models of depression using electric foot-shock to induce depressive like behavior, have excellent face validity and replicate anhedonia and anergia in analogy to loss of interest and pleasure.
Anup K. Ghosh,
Amal C. Mondal,
Behavioral Consequences of Chronic Stress and Effects of Antidepressant Treatment on Animal Models of Depression, American Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience.
Vol. 1, No. 1,
2013, pp. 5-13.
Hasler G., Drevets WC., Manji HK., Charney DS. Discovering endophenotypes for major depression. Neuopsychopharmacol. 2004; 29:1765-1781.
Gambarana C., Scheggi S., Tagliamonte A., Tolu P., De Montis MG. Animal models for the study of antidepressant activity. Brain Res Protoc 2001;7:11–20.
Minor TR., Dess NK., Ben David E., Chang WC. Individual differences in vulnerability to inescapable shock in rats. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Proc 1994; 20:402–12.
Vollmayr B., Bachteler D., Vengeliene V., Gass P., Spanagel R., Henn F. Rats with congenital learned helplessness respond less to sucrose but show no deficits in activity or learning. Behav Br Res. 2004; 150: 217-221.
Lin Y., Westenbroek C., Bakker P., Termeer J., Liu A., Li X. and Ter Horst GJ. Effects of long-term stress and recovery on the prefrontal cortex and dentate gyrus in male and female rats. Cereb cortex. 2008; 18: 2762-2774.
Valentine G., Dow A., Banasr M., Pittman B., Duman R. Differential effects of chronic antidepressant treatment on shuttle box escape deficits induced by uncontrollable stress. Psychopharmacol. 2008; 200: 585-596.
Banerjee R., Ghosh AK., Ghosh B., Mondal AC. Female-Specific Depression Induction in Learned-Helplessness Model of Rats. Int J Bioeng Sci and Tech 2011a; 2(3): 51-59.
Banerjee R., Ghosh AK., Ghosh B., Mondal AC. Stress: The Negative modulator of NGF. Res Rev: A J Life Sci. 2011b; 1(2): 1-9.
Banerjee R., Das M., Mondal AC., Ghosh B., Ghosh AK. Influences of chronic stress and antidepressant treatment on the hippocampal concentrations of macromolecule BDNF (Brain-derived neurotrophic factor) in a rat model of Learned helplessness Asian J Microbio, Biotech Env Sci. 2011c 13(4): 625-632.
Banerjee R., Ghosh AK., Mondal AC. Effects of chronic stress and antidepressant treatment on behavioral, physiological and neurochemical aspects in male and female rats. Al Ameen J Med Sci. 2012a; 5(2):165-176.
Banerjee R, Ghosh AK, Ghosh B, Batabyal S, Mondal AC. Effects of chronic mild stress on brain derived neurotrophic and nerve growth factors in the rat hippocampus. Neurosci Res Lett.. 2012b; 3(1): 29-34.
Gambarana C., Scheggi S., Tagliamonte A., Tolu P., De Montis MG. Animal models for the study of antidepressant activity. Brain Res Protoc. 2001; 7: 11-20.
Chen H., Pandey GN., Dwivedi Y. Hippocampal cell proliferation regulation by repeated stress and antidepressants. Neuroreport. 2006; 17: 863-867.
Banerjee R., Ghosh AK., Mondal AC. Chronic administration of Fluoxetine ameliorates depression: Enhanced BDNF and its receptor TrkB expressions with down stream signalling cascades ERK1/2 and Akt pathways. J Pharm Biomed Sci. 2013; 5(2):165-176.
Pellow S., Chopin P., File SE., Briley M. Validation of open:closed arm entries in an elevated plus-maze as a measure of anxiety in the rat. J Neurosci Methods. 1985; 14:149 –167.
Drugan RC., Basile AS., Ha JH., Healy D., Ferland RJ. Analysis of the importance of controllable versus uncontrollable stress on subsequent behavioral and physiological functioning. Brain Res Brain Res Protoc. 1997; 2(1):69-74.
Grahn RE., Watkins LR., Maier SF. (2000) Impaired escape performance and enhanced conditioned fear in rats following exposure to an uncontrollable stressor are mediated by glutamate and nitric oxide in the dorsal raphe nucleus. Behav Brain Res. 2000; 112(1-2): 33-41.
Durgam RC. Rodent models of depression: learned-helplessness using a triadic design in rats. Curr Protoc Neurosci. 2001; Chapter 8:Unit 8.10B.
Chourbaji S., Zacher C., Sanchis-Segura C., Dormann C., Vollmayr B., Gass P. Learned helplessness: validity and reliability of depressive-like states in mice. Brain Res Brain Res Protoc. 2005; 16(1-3): 70-78.
Willner P. Animal models of depression: an overview. Pharmacol Ther. 1990; 45:425–55.
Willner P. Animal models of depression: validity and applications. Adv Biochem Psychopharmacol. 1995; 49: 19–41.
Vollmayr B., Henn FA. Learned helplessness in the rat: improvements in validity and reliability. Brain Res Brain Res Protoc. 2001; 8(1): 1-7.
Zacharko RM., Anisman H. Stressor-induced anhedonia in the mesocorticolimbic system. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 1991; 15: 391–405.
Sherman AD., Sacquitne JL., Petty F. Specificity of the learned helplessness model of depression. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1982; 16: 449–454.
Greenberg L, Edwards E, Henn FA. (1989) Dexamethasone suppression test in helpless rats. Biol Psychiatry 26:530–532.
Edwards E., Harkins K., Wright G., Henn F. Effects of bilateral adrenalectomy on the induction of learned helplessness behavior. Neuropsychopharmacol. 1990; 3: 109–114.
Duman RS., Malberg J., Nakagawa S., D’Sa C. Neuronal plasticity and survival in mood disorders. Biol Psychiatry 2000; 48: 732–739.
Manji HK.., Drevets WC.., Charney DS. The cellular neurobiology of depression. Nat Med 2001; 7: 541–547.
Coyle JT., Duman RS. Finding the intracellular signaling pathways affected by mood disorder treatments. Neuron 2003; 38: 157–160.
Shirayama Y., Chen AC., Nakagawa S., Russell DS., Duman RS. Brainderived neurotrophic factor produces antidepressant effects in behavioral models of depression. J Neurosci 2002; 22: 3251–3261.
Siuciak JA., Lewis DR., Wiegand SJ., Lindsay RM. Antidepressant-like effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1997; 56: 131–137.
Fuchs E., Gould E. Mini-review: in vivo neurogenesis in the adult brain: regulation and functional implications. Eur J Neurosci. 2000; 12: 2211–2214.
Gould E., Tanapat P., Rydel T., Hastings N. Regulation of hippocampal neurogenesis in adulthood. Biol Psychiatry. 2000; 48: 715–720.