Association between Haptoglobin Genotype Polymorphism and Type Two (2) Diabetes in Accra, Ghana
American Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences
Volume 1, Issue 4, December 2013, Pages: 103-109
Received: Dec. 1, 2013; Published: Jan. 20, 2014
Views 2955      Downloads 126
Authors
Charles Brown, Medical Laboratory Sciences Department, School of Allied Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Korle -bu – Accra, Ghana
Benedicta Awisi, Medical Laboratory Sciences Department, School of Allied Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Korle -bu – Accra, Ghana
Harry Asmah, Medical Laboratory Sciences Department, School of Allied Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Korle -bu – Accra, Ghana
Batholomew Dzudzor, University of Ghana Medical School, University of Ghana, Korle -bu – Accra, Ghana
Anita Ghansah, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon – Accra, Ghana
Article Tools
PDF
Follow on us
Abstract
Polymorphism of the haptoglobin (Hp) gene, characterized by alleles Hp1 and Hp2, gives rise to structurally and functionally distinct Hp protein phenotypes: Hp1-1, Hp2-1, and Hp2-2. The corresponding proteins have structural and functional differences that have influence on a particular disease. For example, Hp genotype is an independent risk factor for diabetic complications. In urban Ghana, type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM) affects at least 6% of adults. The aim of this study was to assess the association between Hp genotype polymorphism in T2DM patients in Accra. The study was a case control one. A total of 100 participants, 50 T2DM patients attending the Diabetes Clinic (Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital) and 50 healthy non-diabetic controls, were involved. Plasma glucose concentration was measured by the glucose-oxidase method. Fasting blood glucose was performed on all subjects except for the individuals with a history of T2DM. Hp genotype was determined by allele specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR produced Hp genotype-specific bands for the Hp1F, Hp1S, and Hp2 alleles. Statistical analyses revealed a significant difference in the Hp genotype distribution between diabetics and non-diabetics (2 = 7.84, df = 2, p = 0.0198). Hp1-1 was the most frequent genotype among non-diabetics (58%) whilst Hp2-2 (38%) was most frequent genotype among diabetics. Majority of the diabetics were found in the Hp1S-1F and Hp2-2 genotype groups for diastolic BP (mmHg), systolic BP (mmHg) and FBG (mM). There was a strong association between DM and Hp2-2 genotype, followed by Hp2-1 (Hp1F-2 > Hp1S- 2) with the least being Hp1-1 (Hp1F-1F, Hp1S-1F, Hp1S-1S). The risk of developing diabetes among people with Hp2-2 and Hp1F-2 genotypes was high. They can therefore be used as markers for an individual developing DM.
Keywords
Haptoglobin, Genotype, Polymorphism, Type two (2) Diabetes
To cite this article
Charles Brown, Benedicta Awisi, Harry Asmah, Batholomew Dzudzor, Anita Ghansah, Association between Haptoglobin Genotype Polymorphism and Type Two (2) Diabetes in Accra, Ghana, American Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences. Vol. 1, No. 4, 2013, pp. 103-109. doi: 10.11648/j.ajbls.20130104.15
References
[1]
M. Polonovski, M.F. Jayle. Sur la preparation d’une nouvelle fraction des prote´ines plasmatiques, l’haptoglobine. Comptes Rendues des Se´ances de la Socie´te ´ de Biologie, vol. 211, pp. 517–519, 1940.
[2]
A. Roguin, W. Koch, A. Kastrati, D. Aronson, A. Schomiga, A.P. Levy, Haptoglobin genotype is predictive of major adverse cardiac events in the one year period after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty in individuals with diabetes, Diabetes Care, vol. 26, pp. 2628–231, 2003.
[3]
A.P. Levy, A. Roguin, I. Hochberg, P. Herer, S. Marsh, F.M. Nakhoul, K. Skorecki, Haptoglobin phenotypes and vascular complications in patient with diabetes, N Engl J Med, vol.343, pp. 343:969–970, 2000.
[4]
J.W. Baynes, Role of oxidative stress in development of complications in diabetes, Diabetes, vol. 40, pp.405–412, 1991.
[5]
R. Asleh, S. Marsh, M. Shilkrut, O. Binah, J. Guetta, F. Lejbkowicz, B. Enav, N. Shehadeh, Y. Kanter, O. Lache, O. Cohen, N.S. Levy, A.P. Levy, Genetically determined heterogeneity in hemoglobin scavenging and susceptibility to diabetic cardiovascular disease, Circ Res, vol. 92, pp.1193-1200, 2003
[6]
D. Farbstein, A.P. Levy, The genetics of vascular complications in diabetes mellitus, Cardiol Clin, vol. 28(3), pp.477-96, 2010.
[7]
M.R. Langlois, J.R. Delangh, Biological and clinical significance of haptoglobin polymorphism in humans, Clin Chem, vol. 42, 1589-1600, 1996.
[8]
R. Asleh, A.P. Levy, In vivo and in vitro studies establishing haptoglobin as a major susceptibility gene for diabetic vascular disease, Vasc Health Risk Manag, vol. 1(1), 19-28, 2005
[9]
S.K. Das, S.C. Elbein, The genetic basis of type 2 diabetes, Cell Science, vol. 2, pp. 100-131, 2006.
[10]
M.B. Adinortey, B.A. Gyan, J.P. Adjimani, P.E. Nyarko, A.K. Nyarko, Is there any relationship between haptoglobin phenotype and retinopathy among Ghanaian diabetics? J Ghana Sci Ass, vol. 11(2), 9-15, 2009.
[11]
WHO, Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Part 1, Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Geneva, World Health Organization, (WHO/NCD/NCS/99.2), 1999.
[12]
Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure, The Sixth Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC VI). Arch Intern Med, vol. 157, pp. 2413–2446, 1997.
[13]
F.J. Fowkes, H. Imrie, F. Migot-Nabias, P. Michon, A. Justice, P. Deloron, A.D. Lufty, K.P. Day, Association of haptoglobin levels with age, parasite density, and haptoglobin genotype in a malaria-endemic area of Gabon, Am J Trop Med Hyg, vol. 74(1), 26-30, 2006.
[14]
WHO, Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2010. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2011.
[15]
M.B. Adinortey, B.A. Gyan, J.P. Adjimani, P.E. Nyarko, C. Sarpong, F.Y. Tsikata, A.K. Nyarko, Haptoglobin polymorphism and association with complications in Ghanaian type 2 diabetic patients, Indian J Clin Biochem, vol. 26(4), pp. 366-372, 2011.
[16]
I.K. Quaye, G. Ababio, A.G. Amoah, Haptoglobin 2-2 phenotype is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes in Ghana, J Atheroscler Thromb, vol. 13, 90-94, 2006.
[17]
M.W. Knuiman, T.A. Welborn, V.J. McCann K.G. Stanton, I.J. Constable, Prevalence of diabetic complications in relation to risk factors, Diabetes, vol. 35, pp. 1332–1339, 1986.
[18]
A. Nyarko, K. Adubofour, F. Ofei, J. Kpodonu, S. Owusu, Serum lipid and lipoprotein levels in Ghanaians with diabetes mellitus and hypertension, J Natl Med Assoc, vol. 89, pp. 191–196, 1997.
[19]
S.H. Atkinson, T.W. Mwangi, S.M. Uyoga, E. Ogada, A.W. Macharia, K. Marsh, A.M. Prentice, T.N. Williams, The haptoglobin 2-2 genotype is associated with a reduced incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children on the coast of Kenya, Clin Infect Dis, vol. 44, pp. 802-809, 2007.
[20]
I. Kasvosve, Z.A.R. Gomo, E. Mvundura, V.M. Moyo, T. Saungweme, H. Khumalo, V.R. Gordeuk, J.R. Boelaert, J.R. Delanghe, D. De Bacquer, I.T. Gangaidzo, Haptoglobin polymorphism and mortality in patients with tuberculosis Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, vol. 4, pp. 771-775, 2000.
[21]
S. Awadallah, M. Hamad, A study of haptoglobin phenotypes in patients with chronic renal failure. Ann Clin Biochem, vol. 40(6), pp. 680-683, 2003.
[22]
M.P. Stern, R.E. Ferrell, M. Rosenthal, S.M. Haffner, H.P. Hazuda, Association between NIDDM, RH blood group, and haptoglobin phenotype. Results from the San Antonio Heart Study. Diabetes vol. 4, pp. 387-391, 1986.
[23]
A.P. Levy, I. Hochberg, K. Jablonski, H.E. Resnick, E.T. Lee, L. Best, B.V. Howard; Strong Heart Study, Haptoglobin phenotype is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in individuals with diabetes, The Strong Heart Study. J Am Coll Cardiol, vol. 40(11), pp.1984-1990, 2002.
[24]
M. Melamed-Frank, O. Lache, B.I. Enav, T. Szafranek, N.S. Levy, R.M. Ricklis, A.P. Levy, Structure-function analysis of the antioxidant properties of haptoglobin. Blood, vol. 98(13), pp. 3693-3698, 2001.
[25]
R. Asleh, J. Guetta, S. Kalet-Litman, R. Miller-Lotan, A.P. Levy, Haptoglobin genotype- and diabetes-dependent differences in iron-mediated oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo, Circ Res. vol. 96(4), pp. 435-441, 2005.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186