Hepatitis B and C Single and Co-Infection Patterns Among Emergency Patients in a Resource-Limited Setting
American Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences
Volume 3, Issue 3, June 2015, Pages: 55-60
Received: Apr. 9, 2015;
Accepted: Apr. 18, 2015;
Published: May 9, 2015
Views 3722 Downloads 150
Fasakin Kolawole Asimiyu, Department of Haematology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Ido Ekiti, Nigeria
Ajayi Oluwafemi David, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Afe Babalola University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria
Esan Ayodele Jacob, Department of Haematology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Ido Ekiti, Nigeria
Omisakin Christopher Tope, Department of Haematology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Ido Ekiti, Nigeria
Adams Olusegun Timothy, Department of Family Medicine, Federal Teaching Hospital, Ido Ekiti, Nigeria
Ojiezeh Tony Ifeanyi, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Afe Babalola University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria
Aboderin Florence Ifechukwude, Department of Haematology and Immunology, College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Nigeria
Background: Hepatitis B and C viral infections continue to constitute major global health problems and are responsible for most liver related deaths. This study is carried out to reveal the hepatitis B and C single and co-infection patterns among emergency patients and their possible liver outcomes. Methods: Two hundred and eighty-eight (288) patients on initial visit from casualty unit were routinely screened for hepatitis B and C viruses over a period of two years in the haematology department. Diaspot one step enzyme immunoassay rapid kits for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV respectively were used. HBsAg and anti-HCV seroprevalence and possible co-infections were evaluated using descriptive statistics of SPSS version 17 and expressed in mean and standard deviation, and male: female ratios. Results: Of the 288 research volunteers, 8.68% and 1.74% were positive for HBsAg and anti-HCV respectively. 1.04% was HBV and HCV co-infected. The overall mean age and male: female ratio were 44.4±17.3 years and 1.4:1 respectively. Lower mean age and higher male: female ratios were observed in HBV and HCV population. HCC remain the major liver outcome in HBV-infected and HBV/HCV co-infected research subjects. Conclusion: Hepatitis B and C viral infections still remain a major public health problem globally. There is need for continued aggressive advocacy on ‘Know your HBV and HCV status’ to reduce the scourge of these infections especially in rural and resource-limited settings where problem of poverty and ignorance have contributed to development of liver complications in these patients.
Fasakin Kolawole Asimiyu,
Ajayi Oluwafemi David,
Esan Ayodele Jacob,
Omisakin Christopher Tope,
Adams Olusegun Timothy,
Ojiezeh Tony Ifeanyi,
Aboderin Florence Ifechukwude,
Hepatitis B and C Single and Co-Infection Patterns Among Emergency Patients in a Resource-Limited Setting, American Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences.
Vol. 3, No. 3,
2015, pp. 55-60.
Adam I, Gassim GI and Murad IA (2013). Hepatitis B and C virus infections among pregnant women in Arab and African countries. Journal of Infectious Disease in Developing Countries 8:566 578.
El-Faramawy AA, El-Rashidy OF, Tawfik PH, Hussein GH (2012) Transfusion transmitted hepatitis: where do we stand now? A one centre study in upper Egypt. Hepatology Mon 12: 286-291.
Khan S, Attaullah S (2011) Share of Afghanistan populace in hepatitis B and C infection’s pool: Is it worthwhile? Virology Journal; 8: 21.
Rabiu KA, Akinola OI, Adewumi AA, Omololu OM, Ojo TO (2010) Risk factors for hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women in Lagos. Acta Obstetricia et Gynaecologica 89:1024- 1028.
El-sheikh RM, Daak AA, El-sheik MA, Kahsany MS, Adam I (2007) Hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis C virus in pregnant Sudanese women. Virology Journal 4: 104.
Mansour W, Malick FZ, Sidiya A, Ishagh E,, Chekarau MA, Veillon P, Ducancelle A, Brichler S, Le Gal F, Lo B, Gordien E, Lunel-Fabiani F (2012) Prevalence, risk factors and molecular epidemiology of hepatitis B and hepatitis delta virus in pregnant women and in patients in Mauritania. Journal of Medical Virology 84: 1186-1198.
Mohebbi SR, Sanati A, Cheraphipour K, Rostami Nejad M, Shalmani HM, Zali MR (2011) Hepatitis C and Hepatitis B virus Infection: Epidemiology and risk factors in a large Cohort of Pregnant Women in Lorestan, West of Iran. Hepatology Mon 1: 736-739.
Fiekumo IB, Musa AM and Zacchaeus AJ (2009). Sero-epidemiology of transfusion-transmissible infectious diseases among blood donors in Osogbo, South-west, Nigeria. Blood Transfusion 7(4):293-299.
Erhabor O, Ejele OA, Nwauche CA (2006): The risk of transfusion acquired hepatitis C virus infection among blood donors in Port-Harcourt: The question of blood safety in Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice 9(1):18-2
Bini EJ, Perumalswami PV. Hepatitis B virus infection among American patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection: prevalence, racial/ethnic differences, and viral interactions. Hepatology. Mar; 2010 51(3):759–766. [PubMed: 20140950]
Brass V, Moradpour D. New insights into hepatitis B and C virus co-infection. J Hepatol. Sep; 2009 51(3):423–425. [PubMed: 19596479]
Crockett SD, Keeffe EB. Natural history and treatment of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus coinfection. Ann ClinMicrobiolAntimicrob. 2005; 4:13. [PubMed: 16159399]
Kiire CF and the African Regional Study Group. Hepatitis B infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Vaccine. 1990; 8:S107-S112.
Kiire CF. The epidemiology and prophylaxis of hepatitis B in sub-Saharan Africa: a view from tropical and subtropical Africa. Gut. 1996; 37(suppl 2):S5-S12.
Ndako JA, Nwankiti OO, Echeonwu GON, Junaid SA, Anaele O, Anthony TJ (2011). Studies on Prevalence and Risk Factors for Hepatitis B Surface Antigen among Secondary School Students in North-central, Nigeria. Sierra Leone J. Biomedical Res. 3 (3): 163-168.
Olokoba AB, Salawu FK, Danburam A, Desalu OO, Olokoba LB, Wahab KW, Badung LH, Tidi SK, Midala J, Aderibigbe S, Abdulrahman MB, Babalola OM, Abdukkarim A (2009). Viral Hepatities in Voluntary Blood Donors in Yola, Nigeria. Euro. J. Scientific Res. 31 (3): 329-334.
Ugwuja EI, Ugwu NC (2010). Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen and Liver Function Tests among Adolescents in Abakaliki, South Eastern Nigeria. The Internet J. Trop. Med. 6 (2): 1-6.
WHO. Weekly Epidemiological Record. 1999 22.08.2012; 49(10): Available from: http://www.who.int/docstore/wer.
Duru MU, Aluyi HAS, Anukam KC (2009). Rapid screening for co-infection of HIV and HCV In pregnant women in Benin City, Edo state, Nigeria. Afr Health Sci.; 9: 137-142.
Ugbebor O, Aigbirior M, Osazuwa F, Enabudoso E, Zabayo O (2011). The prevalence of hepatitis B and C viral infections among pregnant women. North Am. J. Med. Sci. 3 (5): 238-241.
World Health Organization Executive Board (2009). Viral hepatitis. Report by the Secretariat. EB126/15, 12 November 2009. Available from: URL: http://apps.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/EB126/B126_15-en.pdf
World Health Organization. Prevention and control of viral hepatitis infection. Framework for global action. Available from: URL: http://www.who.int/csr/disease/hepatitis/GHP_Framework_En.pdf
Perz JF, Armstrong GL, Farrington LA, Hutin YJ, Bell BP. The contributions of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections to cirrhosis and primary liver cancer worldwide. J Hepatol 2006; 45: 529-538 [PMID: 16879891]
Caccamo G, Saffioti F, Raimondo G. Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus dual infection. World J Gastroenterol 2014; 20(40): 14559-14567 Available from: URL:http://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/full/v20/i40/14559.htmDOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v20.i40.14559
Esan AJ, Omisakin CT, Ojo-Bola T, Owoseni MF, Fasakin KA, and Ogunleye AA. Sero-Prevalence of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Virus Co-Infection among Pregnant Women in Nigeria. American Journal of Biomedical Research, 2014 2(1): 11-15.
Chu CJ, Lee SD. Hepatitis B virus/hepatitis C virus coinfection: epidemiology, clinical features, viral interactions and treatment. J GastroenterolHepatol. Apr; 2008 23(4):512–520. [PubMed: 18397482]
Amin J, Law MG, Bartlett M, Kaldor JM, Dore GJ. Causes of death after diagnosis of hepatitis B or hepatitis C infection: a large community-based linkage study. Lancet. Sep 9; 2006 368(9539):938–945. [PubMed: 16962883]
Sagnelli E, Coppola N, Pisaturo M, Masiello A, Tonziello G, Sagnelli C, et al. HBV superinfection in HCV chronic carriers: a disease that is frequently severe but associated with the eradication of HCV. Hepatology. Apr; 2009 49(4):1090–1097. [PubMed: 19263473]
Fong TL, Di Bisceglie AM, Waggoner JG, Banks SM, Hoofnagle JH. The significance of antibody to hepatitis C virus in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology. Jul; 1991 14(1):64–67. [PubMed: 1648540]
Lin L, Verslype C, van Pelt JF, van RM, Fevery J. Viral interaction and clinical implications of coinfection of hepatitis C virus with other hepatitis viruses. Eur J GastroenterolHepatol. Dec; 2006 18(12):1311–1319. [PubMed: 17099381]
Tuba Cimmili Ozturk, Ozlem Gunetsel, Adem Tali, Sonay Ezgi Yildirim, Ozge Ecmel Onur, Serpil Yaylaci. Hepatitis B Hepatitis C and HIV seroprevalence in critically ill emergency medicine department patients in a tertiary inner city hospital in Istanbul, Turkey. Pak J Med Sci 2014; 30(4): 703-707.
Gabor D. Kellen, Gary B. Green, Robert H. Purcell, Daniel W. Chan, Bahjat F. Qaqish, Keith T. Silvertson and Thomas C. Quinn. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C in emergency department patients. N Engl J Med 1992; 1399-404.
Koulentaki M, Spanoudakis S, Kantidaki E, Drandakis P,Tzagarakis N, Biziagos E, Moschandrea J, Kouroumalis EA. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C markers in volunteer blood donors in Crete. A 5-year study. J Viral Hepat1999;6:243-8.
Robinson T, Bullen C, Humphries W, Hornell J, Moyes C.The New Zealand Hepatitis B Screening Programme: Screening coverage and prevalence of chronic hepatitis B infection. N Z Med J 2005; 118:U1345.
Pei-Kwei Tsay, Dar-In, Yu-Ming Chen, Cheng-Pin, Yu, Shy-Yi Wan, Deng-Yn Lin. Impact of Gender, Viral Transmission and Aging in the Prevalence of Hepatitis B surface Antigen. Chang Gung Med J 2009; 32(2):155-162.
Chen DS, Sung JL, Lai MY. A sero-epidemiologic study of hepatitis B virus infection in Taiwan. Taiwan Yi Xue HuiZa Zhi 1978; 77:908-18.
Sung JL, Chen DS, Lai MY, Yu JY, Wang TH, Wang CY,Lee CY, Chen SH, Ko TM. Epidemiological study onhepatitis B virus infection in Taiwan. Chin J Gastroenterol 1984;1:1-9.
Lin HH, Huang LC, Lin DY. Hepatitis B virus infection in Eastern Taiwan: Viewed from a regional general hospital. Tz’u Chi Med J 1992; 4: 94-99.
World Health Organization; International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Volume 59; Hepatitis Viruses. Lyon, France; International Agency for Research on Cancer; 1994.
Renumathy Dhanasekaran, Alpna Limaye, Roniel Cabrera. Hepatocellular carcinoma: current trends in worldwide epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis and therapeutics. Hepatic Medicine; Evidence and Research 2012; 4: 19-37.
Nguyen V T, Law M G, Dore G J; Hepatitis B-related hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiological characteristics and disease burden. J Viral Hepat 2009; 16 (7): 453-463.
Yang H I, Sherman M, Su J, et al. Nomograms for risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. J Clin Oncol 2010; 28 (14): 2437-2444.