Effects of Prolonged Administration of Aqueous Extract of Ocimum gratissimum (Scent Leaf) on Blood Glucose and Lipid Profile in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Albino Rats
American Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences
Volume 4, Issue 3, June 2016, Pages: 30-34
Received: Mar. 31, 2016; Accepted: Apr. 15, 2016; Published: Apr. 28, 2016
Views 3777      Downloads 177
Author
Ufele Angela Nwogor, Zoology Department, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
This study was aimed at comparing the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activities of various doses (1.0, 2.0ml and 3.0ml) of aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum and glibenclamide (a reference hypoglycemic drug). Ninety (90) male wistar albino rats were used. The rats were divided into six groups (A, B, C, D, E and F) of five rats each. The experiment was replicated three times. The first group, A was non diabetic while B to F was made diabetic using alloxan. Results obtained showed that there was a significant difference (p<0.05) in blood glucose level (mg/dl) following the administration of Ocimum gratissimum leaf extract in groups D and E (139.96±7.2mg/dl and 106.64±4.30mg/dl) when compared to the diabetic control group B (299.34±1.30mg/dl). Administration of glibenclamide (antidiabetic drug) also resulted in a significant drop in the blood glucose levels between week 1 and 4. The effects of Ocimum gratissimum and glibenclamide on the blood glucose level are significantly the same at the final week (week 4). The effect of 2.0ml and 3.0ml (groups C and D) of aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum on total cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) compared favourably with the reference drug (glibenclamide) whereby they all have significant difference (P<0.05) on these biochemical parameters when compared to the diabetic control. All doses of Ocimum gratissimum aqueous leaf extract increased the level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (37.41±1.07mg/dl, 42.09±1.22mg/dl and 49.76±0.63mg/dl) when compared to the diabetic control group (32.27±1.68). The effect of highest dose (3.0ml) of Ocimum gratissimum extract on high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (49.76±0.63) compares favourably with the effect seen on the reference drug (glibenclamide) (50.15±1.17). The results suggest that the leaf aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum at 3.0ml dosage has antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effect and would be of benefit in the treatment and management of diabetes mellitus, controlling the blood sugar level as well as in preventing or delaying the onset of diabetes mellitus.
Keywords
Albino Rats, Ocimum gratissimum, Blood Glucose and Lipoprotein Cholesterol
To cite this article
Ufele Angela Nwogor, Effects of Prolonged Administration of Aqueous Extract of Ocimum gratissimum (Scent Leaf) on Blood Glucose and Lipid Profile in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Albino Rats, American Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences. Vol. 4, No. 3, 2016, pp. 30-34. doi: 10.11648/j.ajbls.20160403.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Abdel-barry, I. A., Hassan, J. A., Mohammed, T. S. (2000). The hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic effects of Citrullus colocynthis fruit aqueous extract in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 71:325-330.
[2]
Celso, V., Nakamar, I. E., Tania, U. J. (2005). Anti bacteria activity of Ocimum gratissimum essential oil. Momarias do mitituto oswaldo cruz, 94(5): 675-678.
[3]
Chang, X., Jorgensen, A. M., Bardium, P., Led, J. J. (1997). Solution structures of the R6 human insulin hexamer. Biochemistry. 36(31): 9409-22.
[4]
David G. G, (2011) Greenspan’s basic and clinical endocrinology (9th edition) New York pp 45-48.
[5]
Ezekwe, C. I, Obidoa, O (2001). Biochemical effect of Vernonia amygdalina on rats liver microsome. Nigeria Journal of Biochemical Molecular Biology, 16: 1745-1798.
[6]
Gibbons, G. F. (1998). Hyperlipidemia of diabetes. Clinical Science.71: 477-486.
[7]
Gineberg, H. N. (2000). Insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 106: 453-459.
[8]
Gupta, S. S (1994). Prospects and perspectives of natural plant products in medicine; Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 26:1-12.
[9]
Krinke, G. J. (2000) History, strains and models. The Laboratory Rat (Handbook of exp. Animals). Academic Press. Pp 3-16.
[10]
Ladeji, O., Omekarah, I., Solomon, M. S. (2003) Hypoglycemic properties of aqueous bark extract of Oeiba pentandra in streptozotocin–induced diabetic rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 84: 139-142.
[11]
Lenzen, S. (2008). The mechenisms of alloxan and streptozotocin induced diabetes. Diabetologia, 51(2): 216-226.
[12]
Markku, L. (1995). Epidemiology of diabetes dyslipidemia. Diabetes Review, 3: 408-422.
[13]
National Diabetes Association (2000). Nutrition recommendations and principles for people with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care; Pp 543-546.
[14]
Nimenibo-Uadia, R. (2003). Effect of aqueous extract of Canavalia ensiformis seeds on hyperlipidaemia and hyperketonaemia in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. African Journal of Biochemistry, 15: 7-15.
[15]
Oberley, L. W (1988). Free radicals and diabetes. Biology and Medicine journal, 5: 113-124.
[16]
Ortega, F. J., Gimeno-Bayon, J., Espinosa-Parrilla, J. F., Carrasco, J. L., Batlle, M., Fugliese, M., Mahu, N., Rodriguez, M.J. (2012). ATP-dependent potassium channel blockade strengthens microglial neuroprotection after hypoxia-ischemia in rats. Experimental Neurology, 235(1): 282–296.
[17]
Pessoa, L. M., Morais, S. M., Bevilaqua, C. L., Luciano, J. H. (2002). Anthelmintic activity of essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum and eugenol against Haemonchus contortus. Veterinary Parasitology, 109: 59-63.
[18]
Richmond, W. O. (1973). Cholesterol enzymatic colorimetric test, Chop-PAP method of estimation of total cholesterol in serum. Clinical Chemistry, 191: 1350-1356.
[19]
Rotimi, S. O., Omotosho, O. E., Rotimi, O. A. (2011). Persistence of acidosis in alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with the juice of Asystasia gangetica leaves. Pharmacognosy Magazine, 8(7): 25-30.
[20]
Socorro, V. F., Madaira, U. C., David, N. (2002). Relaxant effect of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum on isolated ileum of the guinea pig. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 81(1): 3-5.
[21]
Sofowora, A. (1993). Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine In Africa. Spectrum Book LTD, Ibadan, Nigeria. Pp 345-349.
[22]
Suba, V. H., Murugesan, T., Manda, S. C., Sahu, B. P. (2004). Antidiabetic potential of Barleria lupilina extract in rats. Phytomedicine, 11:202-205.
[23]
Twaij, H. A., Al-Badr, A. (1988). Hypoglycaemic activity of Artemisia herba-alba. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 24: 123-126.
[24]
WHO Expert Committee (2001). The selection and use of essential medicines. World Health Organization Technical Report Series, 65: 1–249.
[25]
Wild, S., Roglic, G. A., Green, A., King, H., (2004). Prevalence of diabetes: Estimates for 2000 and projection for 2040. Diabetes care; 27(5): 1047-1053.
[26]
William, A. C., and George, W. S. (2008). Statistical Methods, 6th Ed., The Iowa State University Press. Ames, Iowa, USA. Pp. 167-263.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186