Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Bacterial Isolates from Infected Caesarean Sites in Three Federal Capital Territory Hospitals, Abuja Nigeria
American Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences
Volume 6, Issue 4, August 2018, Pages: 90-95
Received: Aug. 10, 2018;
Accepted: Sep. 21, 2018;
Published: Oct. 25, 2018
Views 521 Downloads 55
Egbe Friday Andrew, Department of Public Health, Institute of Federal Capital Territory Administration, Abuja, Nigeria
Unam Nse Friday, Department of Research, Federal Ministry of Health Institute, Abuja, Nigeria
Egbe Kingsley Andrew, Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
Lerum Nathaniel Isaiah, Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
Ekwom Edith Silas, Department of Biological Science, Cross River University of Technology, Calabar, Nigeria
Unah Victor Unah, Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
In Nigeria, delivery by caesarean section which was once a dreaded event due in part to possible complications, fear and cost implications has over the past few years gain acceptance especially among the urban dwellers, as more women and doctors opt for caesarean delivery, resulting to increase in incidence of caesarean site infections. A total of one hundred and ninety four (194) caesarean sites of women who have undergone caesarean section delivery in three federal capital territory hospitals with signs of infection were screened for bacterial infection between September, 2017 and July 2018. Specimens were collected using sterile cotton swab and processed using standard operative procedures in appropriate culture media and susceptibility test was done using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. The result showed that forty six (46) out of the total (194) were found to be infected. This represented a 23.71% infection rate. The infection was polymicrobial in nature with various bacterial species such as; Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella spp and Proteus spp, isolated. The single most commonly infecting organism was found to be Escherichia coli which had been isolated from 13(28.26%) samples, followed by Staphylococcus aureus 10(21.74%), Staphylococcus epidermidis 8(17.39%), Enterobacter spp 6(13.04), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 4(8.70%), Klebsiella spp 3(6.52%), and Proteus spp 2(4.35%) respectively. One hundred percent (100%) resistance to tetracycline and amoxicillin was recorded mostly from gram negative organisms while ciprofloxacin, gentamycin, cefalexin and cefuroxime exhibited significant antibacterial activity against the isolated pathogens and therefore recommended for consideration in cases of caesarean infection.
Egbe Friday Andrew,
Unam Nse Friday,
Egbe Kingsley Andrew,
Lerum Nathaniel Isaiah,
Ekwom Edith Silas,
Unah Victor Unah,
Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Bacterial Isolates from Infected Caesarean Sites in Three Federal Capital Territory Hospitals, Abuja Nigeria, American Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences.
Vol. 6, No. 4,
2018, pp. 90-95.
A. Qaisar, N. Akhtar, R. W. Akhtar and W. latif, “Antimicrobial susceptibilty profile of bacterial pathogens in surgical site infections at a tertiary care hospital in Rawalpindi,” J. Inf. Mol. Biol, vol. 3, pp. 57-61, 2015.
S. Madhavi, and S. S. Parveen, “Bacteriological Profile and Antimicrobial Sensitivity of Wound Infection,” Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci, vol. 4, pp.248-254, 2015.
T. C. Horan, R. P. Gaynes, W. J. Martone, W. R. Jarvis, T. G. Emori, “CDC definitions of noscomial surgical site infections: a modification of CDC definitions of surgical wound infections,” Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol, vol.13, pp. 606-608, 1992.
T. Yoshio, K. Shinya, M. Hiroshige, S. Junko, W. Akira, K. Hiroshi, I. Satoshi, K. Mitsuo, H. Hideaki, S. Yoshinobu, K. Yuko, M. Toru, A. Yoshiyasu, K. Masafumi, I. Keiichiro, M. Akihisa, H. Kazuo, H. Yasushi, O. Koji, S. Koji, H. Takuo, M. Koshi, M. Yoichi, K. Minako, K. Shoji, U. Kazuhisa, S. Junzo, K. Ryohei, O. Hiroki, A. Shinji, O. Masaaki, W. Katsunori, O. Kohji, Y. Katsunori, “Antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens isolated from surgical site infections in Japan: Comparison of data from nationwide surveillance studies conducted in 2010 and 2014 – 2015,” J Infect Chemother, vol. 23, pp. 339-348, 2017.
K. Henman, C. L. Gordon, T. Gardiner, J. Thorn, B. Spain, J. Davies, R. Baird, “Surgical site infections following caesarean section at Royal Darwin Hospital, Northern Territory,” Healthcare Infection, vol. 17, pp. 47-51, 2012.
J. A. Weigelt, B. A. Lipsky, Y. P. Tabak, K. G. Derby, M. Kim, and V. Gupta, “Surgical site infections: causative pathogens and associated outcomes,” Am. J. Infect. Control, vol. 38, pp. 112- 120, 2010.
I. K. Afifi, E. A. Labah, and K. M. Ayad, “Surgical site infections after elective general surgery in Tanta University Hospital: Rate, risk factors and microbiological profile,” Egyptian J. Med. Microbiol, vol. 18, pp. 61-71, 2009.
A. Ghaleb, A. H. Nael, S. Ibrahim, S. Dalia, A. Shorouq, O. Shorouq, A. A. Zeinab, and B. Haneen, “Detection of bacterial pathogens in surgical site infections and their antibiotic sensitivity profile,” Int J Med res Health Sci, vol. 5, pp. 75-82, 2016.
R. L. Nichols, “Preventing surgical site infections: a surgeon’s perspective” Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 7, pp. 220-224, 2001.
F. J. Mpogoro, S. E Mshana, M. M. Mirambo, B. R. Kidenya, B. Gumodoka, and C. Imirzalioglu "Incidence and predictors of surgical site infections following caesarean sections at Bugando Medical Centre, Mwanza, Tanzania" Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control vol. 3 (25), pp. 1-10, 2014.
A. P. Betrán, M. Merialdi, J. A. Lauer, W. Bing‐Shun, J. Thomas, P. Van Look, M. Wagner, “Rates of caesarean section: analysis of global, regional and national estimates,” . Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol, vol. 21, pp. 98-113, 2007.
M. Ghuman, D. Rohlandt, G. Joshy, and R. Lawrenson, "Post-caesarean section surgical site infection: rate and risk factors," NZMJ, Vol. 124 No 1339, pp. 32-36, 2011.
M. A. Olsen, A. M. Butler, D. M. Willers, P. Devkota, G. A. Gross, V. J. Fraser, “Risk factors for surgical site infection after low transverse cesarean section,” Risk, vol. 29, pp. 477- 484, 2008.
S. P. Gong, H. X. Guo, L. Chen, Y. H. Yu, “Morbidity and risk factors for surgical site Infection following cesarean section in Guangdong Province, China,” J Obstet Gynaecol Res, vol. 38, pp. 509-515, 2012.
A. Giacometti, O. Cirioni, A. Schimizzi, M. Del Prete, F. Barchiesi, M. D’errico, E. Petrelli, G. Scalise, “Epidemiology and microbiology of surgical wound infections,” J Clin Microbiol, vol. 38, pp. 918-922, 2000.
Anguzu J, Olila D: Drug sensitivity patterns of bacterial isolates from septic post-operative wounds in a regional referral hospital in Uganda. Afr Health Sci 2007, 7(3):148–154.
S. Zuarez-Easton, N, Zafran, G, Garmi, R, Salim, "Postcesarean wound infection: prevalence, impact, prevention, and management challenges" International Journal of Women’s Health, vol. 9, pp. 81-88, 2017.
D. Walelign, M. Gebru, F. Surafael, M. Amete, H. Mulu, and A. Engida, “Pattern of Bacterial Pathogens and Their Susceptibility Isolated from Surgical Site Infections at Selected Referral Hospitals, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia,” Int J Microbiol, vol. 2016, pp. 1-10, 2016. Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2418902.
A. Kahsay, A. Mihret, T. Abebe, and T. Andualem, “Isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with surgical site infection at Debre Markos Referral Hospital, Amhara Region, Ethiopia,” Archives of Public Health, vol. 72, pp. 1-7, 2014. Retrieved from: https://archpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/2049-3258-72-16.
M. Chhetry, S. Subedi, S. Ghimire, S. Lamichanne, B. Banerjee, G. K. Singh, “Antibiotic sensitivity in post cesarean surgical site infection at a tertiary care centre in Eastern Nepal,” Journal of Lumbini Medical College, vol. 4(2):55-59, 2016.