Increased Oxidative Stress Markers in Subjects Occupationally Exposed to Heavy Metals May Be Due to Poor Antioxidant Responses to Stressors
American Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences
Volume 7, Issue 6, December 2019, Pages: 184-189
Received: Dec. 5, 2019; Accepted: Dec. 12, 2019; Published: Dec. 23, 2019
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Authors
Okonkwo Francis Obiora, Environmental & Occupational Toxicology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Plateau State University, Bokkos, Nigeria
Benjamin Danladi, Environmental & Occupational Toxicology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Plateau State University, Bokkos, Nigeria
Bege Jonathan, Environmental & Occupational Toxicology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Plateau State University, Bokkos, Nigeria
Uzonu Ikenna Ugonna, Environmental Management and Toxicology Department, College of Natural Resources & Environmental Management, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Umuahia, Nigeria
John Barnabas Nvau, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Plateau State University, Bokkos, Nigeria
Chukwunonso ECC Ejike, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Alex Ekwueme Federal University, Ndufu-Alike, Nigeria
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Abstract
Artisanal miners (AM) and farmers who use water from abandoned mines for irrigation (FA) are occupationally exposed to heavy metals. Understanding their antioxidant-responses to such stressors warrants investigation. The oxidative stress levels and antioxidant-responses in 45 test subjects (AM, 30; FA, 15) and 15 control subjects who live far away from any mine (CS) were investigated. Blood concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione s-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) of the 60 subjects were determined/assayed using standard methods. Appropriate statistical tests were used to analyze the data. MDA concentrations were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the AM and FA groups relative to the CS/control group. GSH concentrations, GPx and CAT activities were statistically similar (P > 0.05) in all groups. However, GST activity (µmol/min/ml) was significantly reduced in the AM (8.8 ± 1.0) and FA (8.7 ± 0.5) groups compared to the CS group (10.4 ± 2.3). The inability of subjects occupationally exposed to heavy metals to increase the activity of their antioxidant enzymes and the concentration of GSH may be responsible for the heightened lipid peroxidation found in them.
Keywords
Oxidative Stress, Heavy Metal Exposure, Urinary Phenol, Artisanal Miners, Stressors
To cite this article
Okonkwo Francis Obiora, Benjamin Danladi, Bege Jonathan, Uzonu Ikenna Ugonna, John Barnabas Nvau, Chukwunonso ECC Ejike, Increased Oxidative Stress Markers in Subjects Occupationally Exposed to Heavy Metals May Be Due to Poor Antioxidant Responses to Stressors, American Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences. Vol. 7, No. 6, 2019, pp. 184-189. doi: 10.11648/j.ajbls.20190706.20
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Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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