Psychological and Social Effects of Pregnancy in Unmarried Young Women in Bui, Northwest, Cameroon
American Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences
Volume 7, Issue 6, December 2019, Pages: 190-198
Received: Nov. 25, 2019;
Accepted: Dec. 19, 2019;
Published: Dec. 31, 2019
Views 84 Downloads 77
Rita Muso Fubam, Pan African University Life and Earth Sciences Institute, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan/University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria
Akin-Tunde Ademola Odukogbe, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan/University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria
Magbagbeola David Dairo, Department of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan/University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria
Unmarried status has been associated with low psychological and social wellbeing among young pregnant women, who are very likely to have unintended pregnancies. The current study investigated the psychological and social effects of pregnancy in unmarried young women aged 15 to 24 years in Bui, Northwest Cameroon. It was a cross-sectional facility-based survey and one hundred and eighty-four unmarried young women in six health facilities who met the inclusion criteria were recruited. Data were collected using an interviewer-administered, semi-structured questionnaire and analysed with the aid of SPSS 21.0. Univariate analysis was done for frequencies, means and standard deviations while hypotheses were tested using Chi square test and logistic regression. P value was set at p< 0.05. More than half (52.2%) of respondents were aged 20 to 24 years, 54.3% had never used a contraceptive and 82.1% reported their pregnancy was unplanned. Over half (57.1%) of the respondents reported high levels of anxiety and depression related to their pregnancy, 57.6% had a high perception of stigma and discrimination and 61.8% stopped schooling after discovering they were pregnant. Multivariate analysis revealed that compared to those who wanted their pregnancy, those who did not want their pregnancy had higher odds of experiencing high levels of anxiety and depression (AOR 6.38, 95% CI 2.93-13.88, p=0.00). It also showed that those who were not in relationship with their baby’s father had higher odds of perceiving high levels of stigma and discrimination (AOR 2.22, 95% CI 1.07-4.62, p=0.03). In conclusion, policy makers should intensify efforts to prevent unintended pregnancy among young unmarried women. They should not concentrate all efforts toward preventing unsafe abortion due to unwanted pregnancy, but focus attention also on how to help young women who choose to keep their pregnancy. Adequate and multidisciplinary supervision and support during pregnancy, labour and postpartum period will help promote psychosocial wellbeing among this group. The male partners of pregnant young women should also be empowered to take responsibility.
Rita Muso Fubam,
Akin-Tunde Ademola Odukogbe,
Magbagbeola David Dairo,
Psychological and Social Effects of Pregnancy in Unmarried Young Women in Bui, Northwest, Cameroon, American Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences.
Vol. 7, No. 6,
2019, pp. 190-198.
Teferra, T. B., Erena, A. N., Kebede, A. 2015. Prevalence of premarital sexual practice and associated factors among undergraduate Health Science students of Madawalabu University, Bale Goba, South East Ethiopia : an institution based cross-sectional study. The Pan African Medical Journal; 20: 209.
Ugoji, F. N. 2014. Determinants of risky sexual behaviours among secondary school students in Delta State Nigeria, International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 19: 3, 408-418.
Obare, F., van der Kwaak, A., Birungi, H. 2012. Factors associated with unintended pregnancy, poor birth outcomes and post-partum contraceptive use among HIV positive female adolescents in Kenya. BMC Women’s Health, 12: 34.
United Nations. 2014. World Fertility Report 2013: Fertility at the Extremes.
Okigbo, C. C. and Speizer, I. S. 2015. Determinants of sexual activity and pregnancy among unmarried young women in Urban Kenya: A Cross-Sectional Study. PLoS ONE 10 (6): e0129286.
Imaledo, J. A., Peter-Kio, O. B. and Asuquo, E. O. 2012. Pattern of risky sexual behavior and associated factors among undergraduate students of the University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Pan Afr Med J.; 12: 97.
Asekun-Olarinmoye, E. O., Dairo, M. D., Abodurin, O. L., Asekun-Olarinmoye, I. O. 2011. Practice and content of sex education among adolescents in a family setting in rural Southwest Nigeria. Int’l. Quarterly of Community Health Education, Vol. 32 (1) 57-71.
Smith W., Turan M Janet, White K, Stringer L Kristi, Helova A, Simpson T, Cockrill K. 2016 Social Norms and Stigma Regarding Unintended Pregnancy and Pregnancy Decisions: A Qualitative Study of Young Women in Alabama. Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2016 Jun; 48 (2): 73–81 doi: 10.1363/48e9016.
Marston, M., Beguy, D., Kabiru, C., Cleland, J. 2013. Predictors of sexual debut among young adolescents in Nairobi’s informal settlements. International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health; 39 (1): 22–31.
Mturi, A. J. 2015. Why young women bear children? A case study of North West Province, South Africa. Collen Working Paper 2.
World Health Organization. 2014. Adolescent pregnancy fact sheet.
Egbe, T. O., Omeichu, A., Halle-Ekane, G. E., Tchente, C. N., Egbe, E-N. and Oury, J-F. 2015. Prevalence and outcome of teenage hospital births at the Buea health district, South West Region, Cameroon. Reproductive Health 12: 118.
Fouelifack, F. Y. et al. 2014. Outcome of deliveries among adolescent girls at the Yaoundé Central Hospital. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 14: 102.
Njim, T., Choukem, S-P., Atashili, J. and Mbu, R. 2016. Adolescent deliveries in a secondary level care hospital of Cameroon: a retrospective analysis of the prevalence, six-year trend and adverse outcomes. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, doi: 10.1016/j.jpag.2016.05.011.
Reszel, J., Peterson, W. E. and Moreau, D. 2014. Young women’s experiences of expected health behaviors during pregnancy: the importance of emotional support. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 31: 198–211.
Anwar, E. and Stanistreet, D. 2014. ‘It has not ruined my life; it has made my life better’: a qualitative investigation of the experiences and future aspirations of young mothers from the North West of England. Journal of Public Health: pp. 1–8 doi: 10.1093/pubmed/fdu045.
Levandowski, B. A., Kalilani-Phiri, L., Kachale, F., Awah, P., Kangaude. G., Mhango, C. 2012. Investigating social consequences of unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion in Malawi: The role of stigma. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 118, Supplement 2, S167 S171.
Yazdkhasti, M., Pourreza, A., Pirak, A., and Abdi, F. 2015. Unintended Pregnancy and Its Adverse Social and Economic Consequences on Health System: A Narrative Review Article. Iranian journal of public health, 44 (1), 12–21Pajulo, M. et al. 2001. Antenatal depression, substance dependency and social support. Journal of Affective Disorders, 65: 9-17.
Ellis-Sloan, K. 2014. Teenage Mothers, Stigma and Their 'Presentations of Self'. Sociological Research Online, 19 (1) 9.
UNFPA. 2013. The State of World Population 2013. Motherhood in childhood: facing the challenge of adolescent pregnancy.
Berthelon, M. and Kruger, I. D. 2016. Does adolescent motherhood affect education and labor market outcomes of mothers? A study on young adult women in Chile during 1990 2013. Int J Public Health. DOI 10.1007/s00038-016-0926-5.
Radloff, L. S. 1977. The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurements, 1, 385-401.
King M, Dinos S, Shaw J, Watson R, Stevens S, Passetti F, Weich S, Serfaty M. 2007. The Stigma Scale: development of a standardised measure of the stigma of mental illness. British Journal of Psychiatry; 190: 248-254.
Leerlooijer, N. J. et al. 2013. Qualitative evaluation of the teenage mothers’ project in Uganda: a community-based empowerment intervention for unmarried teenage mothers. BMC Public Health, 13: 816.
Ounjit, W. 2011. Pre-marital sex and pregnancy: the high price of forgiveness. International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, Vol. 1, No. 2.
Wilson-Mitchell, K., Bennett, J. and Stennett, R. 2014. Psychological Health and Life Experiences of Pregnant Adolescent Mothers in Jamaica. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 4729-4744; doi: 10.3390/ijerph110504729.
Nordin, N., Wahab, R. A. and Yunus, F. W. 2012. Psychological Wellbeing of Young Unwed Pregnant Women: Implications for extension education and programs. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 68; 700–709.
Biaggi, A., Conroy S., Pawlby S., and Pariante M. C. 2016. Identifying the women at risk of antenatal anxiety and depression: A systematic review. J Affect Disord; 191: 62–77. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2015.11.014
Ugoji, F. N. 2013. Self-Esteem, Depression and Stigmatization as Determinants of Educational Attainment of Pregnant Adolescents in Delta State Nigeria International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Vol. 3 No. 3; 154.