Antibacterial Activities and Phytochemical Analysis of Chromolaena odorata Leaves on Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
American Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences
Volume 8, Issue 2, April 2020, Pages: 33-40
Received: Feb. 3, 2020; Accepted: Mar. 13, 2020; Published: Mar. 31, 2020
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Mbah-Omeje Kelechi Nkechinyere, Department of Applied Microbiology and Brewing, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu, Nigeria
Ossai-Oloto Mary Chioma, Depatment of Science Laboratory Technology, Institute of Management and Technology, Enugu, Nigeria
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Plants contains secondary metabolites or phytochemicals which when consumed by humans have therapeutic effects. This study therefore analyzed the phytochemical composition of Chromolaena odorata so as to give an idea of its possible pharmacological potentials. The present study also evaluates the antibacterial activity of the crude extracts of the leaves of Chromolaena odorata against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. A total of 40 samples were collected from food vendors and male students in Esut. These comprised of 10 samples each of soya milk, zobo, ugba and 10 urine samples. Cultures were done on Manitol salt agar. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were determined using oxacillin 10ug sensitivity disc. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical analysis were done using standard methods to reveal the presence of the basic phytochemicals. The powder was also macerated in ethanol and chloroform to produce ethanol and chloroform crude extracts that were reconstituted with dimethyl sulfoxide to concentrations (mg/ml) of 200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25. MRSA isolates were screened for sensitivity to the extracts using the agar well diffusion method. MRSA isolates were highly prevalent at 80%. The leaves of Chromolaena odorata contained alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, phenols and cardiac glycosides. The ethanol extracts had highest concentration of almost all phytochemicals present. The antibacterial activity of the plant was concentration dependent in both ethanol and chloroform extracts. The ethanol extracts showed higher zone of inhibition of 28mm at concentration of 200mg/ml while chloroform extracts showed lower zones of inhibition of 12mm at the same concentration. The substantial quantity of the basic phytochemicals in Chromolaena odorata could render it a utility plant in therapeutic use. Due to the profound antibacterial effect, the plant could be classified as a broad spectrum antibacterial agent for the management of MRSA diseases.
Antibacterial Activity, Phytochemical Analysis, Chromolaena odorata Leaves, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
To cite this article
Mbah-Omeje Kelechi Nkechinyere, Ossai-Oloto Mary Chioma, Antibacterial Activities and Phytochemical Analysis of Chromolaena odorata Leaves on Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, American Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences. Vol. 8, No. 2, 2020, pp. 33-40. doi: 10.11648/j.ajbls.20200802.12
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