American Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences
Volume 8, Issue 2, April 2020, Pages: 33-40
Received: Feb. 3, 2020;
Accepted: Mar. 13, 2020;
Published: Mar. 31, 2020
Views 122 Downloads 75
Mbah-Omeje Kelechi Nkechinyere, Department of Applied Microbiology and Brewing, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu, Nigeria
Ossai-Oloto Mary Chioma, Depatment of Science Laboratory Technology, Institute of Management and Technology, Enugu, Nigeria
Plants contains secondary metabolites or phytochemicals which when consumed by humans have therapeutic effects. This study therefore analyzed the phytochemical composition of Chromolaena odorata so as to give an idea of its possible pharmacological potentials. The present study also evaluates the antibacterial activity of the crude extracts of the leaves of Chromolaena odorata against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. A total of 40 samples were collected from food vendors and male students in Esut. These comprised of 10 samples each of soya milk, zobo, ugba and 10 urine samples. Cultures were done on Manitol salt agar. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were determined using oxacillin 10ug sensitivity disc. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical analysis were done using standard methods to reveal the presence of the basic phytochemicals. The powder was also macerated in ethanol and chloroform to produce ethanol and chloroform crude extracts that were reconstituted with dimethyl sulfoxide to concentrations (mg/ml) of 200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25. MRSA isolates were screened for sensitivity to the extracts using the agar well diffusion method. MRSA isolates were highly prevalent at 80%. The leaves of Chromolaena odorata contained alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, phenols and cardiac glycosides. The ethanol extracts had highest concentration of almost all phytochemicals present. The antibacterial activity of the plant was concentration dependent in both ethanol and chloroform extracts. The ethanol extracts showed higher zone of inhibition of 28mm at concentration of 200mg/ml while chloroform extracts showed lower zones of inhibition of 12mm at the same concentration. The substantial quantity of the basic phytochemicals in Chromolaena odorata could render it a utility plant in therapeutic use. Due to the profound antibacterial effect, the plant could be classified as a broad spectrum antibacterial agent for the management of MRSA diseases.
Mbah-Omeje Kelechi Nkechinyere,
Ossai-Oloto Mary Chioma,
Antibacterial Activities and Phytochemical Analysis of Chromolaena odorata Leaves on Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, American Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences.
Vol. 8, No. 2,
2020, pp. 33-40.
A. A. Adedapo, O. J. Aremu, and A. Oyagbemi. Anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties of the acetone leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina in some laboratory animals. Adv. Pharm. Bull. 4 (2) (2016): 591-598.
G. N. Anyasor, D. A. Ama, M. Olushola, and A. F. Aniyikaye. Phytochemical Constituent, Proximate analysis, antioxidant, antibacterial and wound healing properties of leaf extracts of Chromolaenaodorata. Annal of Biological Research, 2 (2) (2011). 441-451.
A. C. Akinmoladun, E. O. Ibukun, and O. I. A. Dan. Phytochemical Constituents and antioxidant properties of extracts from the leaves of Chromolaena odorata. Scientific Research and Essay, 2 (6) (2007). 191-194.
M. Atindehou, L. Lagnuca, B. Guerold, J. M Strub, M. Zhao, A. V. M. Dorsselaer and M. H. Boutigue. Isolation and identification of two antibacterial agents from Chromolaena odorata L. activity against four diarrheal strains. Advances in microbiology, 3 (2013). 115-121.
C. S. Alisi, G. O. C. Onyeze, O. A. Ojiak, and C. G. Osuagwu. Evaluation of the Protective Potential of Chromolaena odorata Leaf extract on carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative liver damage. International journal of Biochemistry Research and Review, 1 (3) (2014). 69-81.
G. Bordeker, and F, Kronenberg. A Public health agenda for traditional, complementary and alternative medicine. American Journal of Public Health. Vol. 12 (10) (2002). 1582-1591
S. E. Cosgrove, G. Sakoulas, Perencevich, E. N. Schwaber, A. W. Karchmer, Y. Carmeli. Comparison of mortality associated with methicillin-resistant and methicillin –susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. Clin Infect Dis. 36 (1) (2003). 53-59.
R. H. Deurenberg, C. Vink, S. Kalenic, A. W Friedrich, C. A Bruggeman, E. E. Stobbering. The molecular evolution of methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus. ClinMicrobiol Infect. 13 (3) (2007). 222-235.
E. A. Eze, N. E. Oruche, V. C. Onuora, and C. N. Eze. Antibacterial screening of crude ethalolic leaf extracts of four medicinal plants. Journal of Asian Scientific Research, 3 (5) (2013). 431-439.
H. O. Edeoga, D. E. Okwu. and B. O. Mbaebie. Phytochemical Constituents of some Nigerian medicinal plants. African journal of Biotechnology Vol. 4 (7) (2005), pp. 685-688.
K. K. Naidoo, and G. Naidoo. Screening of Chromolaena odorata (L). King and Robinson for anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties. Journal of Medicine and plant research. 5 (19) (2011): 4859-4862.
K. Uthayara, K. Pathmanathan, J. P. Jeyadevanand E. C. Jeyadevanand E. C. Jeeyaseelan. Antibacterial activity and qualitative, phytochemical analysis of medicinal plant extracts obtained by sequential extraction method. International Journal of Universal Pharmacy and Biosciences. 10 (2) (2010) 76-81.
K. K. Naidoo, R. M. Coopoosamy, and G. Naidoo, G. Screening of Chromolena odorata (L.) King and Robinson for antibacterial and antifungal properties. Journal of medicinal plants Research, 5 (19) (2011). 4859-4862.
M. Ogata, M. Hoshi, S. Urano and T. Endo. Antioxidant activity of cugenol and related monomeric and dimertic compounds. Chem. Pharm. Bull, 48 (2002) 1467-1469.
S. Maji, P. Danlopat, D. Ojha, C. Maity, S. K. Halder, P. K. Mohapatra, and K. C. Mondal. In vitro antimicrobial potentialities of different solvent extracts of ethnomedicinal plants against chemically isolated human pathogens. Journal of phytology. 2 (4) (2010). 57-64.
O. C. Nwinyi, N. S. Chinedu, O. O. Ajani, C. O. Ikpo and K. O. Ogunniran. Antibacterial effects of extracts of ocimumgratissimum and Piper guineense on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, Afri. J. Food Science. 3 (3) (2009).81-85.
D. E. Okwu. Phytochemical and Vitamin content of indigenous species of South Eastern Nigeria J. sustain. Agric. Envrion; 6: (2015) 30-34.
D. Pathak, K. Alam, H. Rohilla. And A. Agarwal. Phytochemical Investigation of Boerhaviadiffusa and andrographisPaniculata: A Comparative study. Int. Journal of Pharm Sci, 4 (2012) 250-262.
T. T. Phan, L. Wang, P. See, R. J. Grayer, S. Y. Chan and S. T. Lee. Phenolic Compounds of ChromolaenaOdorata protect cultural skin cells from oxidative damage: implication for cutaneous wound healing. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 24 (12) (2001). 1373-1379.
N. Pisuthanan, B. Liawruangrath, S. Liawruang, A. Baramee, A. Apsisariyakul, J. Korth, and J. B. Bremner. Constituents of the essential oil from aerial parts of Chromolaenaodorata from Thailand. Natural Product Research, 20 (6) (2005) 636-640.
F. Shahkarani, A. Rashki, and Z. Ghalehnoo. Microbial susceptibility and plasmid profiles of methicillin resistant Stapylococcusaureus and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus.. J. Microbial (7) (2014) 169-172.
S. L. Sukanya, J. Sudisha, M. Hariprasad, S. R. Niranjana, H. S. Prakash and S. K. Faithima. Antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts of Indian medicinal plants against clinical and phytopathogenic bacteria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 8 (23) (2009). 6677-6682.
A. Suksamra, A. Chotipong, T. Suavansri, S. Boongird, P. Timsuksai, S. Vimultipong, and A. Chuaynugul. Antimycobacterial activity and cytotoxicity of flavonoids from the flowers of Chromolaenaodorata. Archieves of Pharmacal Research, 27 (5) (2004) 507-511.
H. Tsuchiya, M. Sato, T. Miyazaki, S. Fujiwara, S. Tanigaki, M. Obayama, T. Tanaka and M. Linuma. Comparative study to the Antibacterial activity of thePhytochemical flavones against Methicillin – resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Ethanopharmacology, 50 (2006). 27–34.
E. E. Udo, J. W. Pearman, W. B. Grubb. (2003) Genetic analysis of community isolates of methicillin-resistance Staphylococcus aureus in WesterAustralia. J Hosp infections 25 (2003). 97-108.
C. E. Ugwoke, J. Orgi, S. P. Anze, and V. C. Ulodibia. Quantitative Phytochemical analysis and Antimicrobial potenetial of the ethanol and aqueous extracts of the leaf, stem and root of ChromolaenaOdorata; International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research, 9 (2) (2017). 207–214.
P. G. Vital, and W. L. Rivera. Antimicrobial Activityand cytotoxicity of Chromolaenaodorata (L. F.) King and Robinson and UncariaPetrottettii. Extracts Journal of medicinal plants research 3 (7) (2009). 511-518.
M. F. Z. R. Yahya, M. S. A. Ibrahim, W. H. W. M. Zawawi, and U. M. A. Hamid. Biofilm Killing effects of Chromolaenaodorata extracts against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Research Journal of Phytochemistry, 8 (3) (2014). 64-73.