Physical Exercise Activity, Cognitive Functions and Its Relationship to Quality of Life in the Senior Citizens of Lahore
American Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences
Volume 8, Issue 5, October 2020, Pages: 143-155
Received: Aug. 15, 2020;
Accepted: Aug. 26, 2020;
Published: Sep. 16, 2020
Views 210 Downloads 101
Hamid Mahmood, University Institute of Public Health, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
Ammara Waqar, Quality Enhancement Cell, Al-Aleem Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan
Saleem Rana, University Institute of Public Health, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
Muhammad Yaqoob, University Institute of Public Health, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
Ejaz Mahmood Ahmad Qureshi, University Institute of Public Health, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
Syed Amir Gillani, University Institute of Public Health, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
Asif Hanif, University Institute of Public Health, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
Awais Gohar, Primary and Secondary Health Department, Government of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
There is long debate on the proper functioning of senior citizens with relation to different factors which affect the physical exercise activity and cognitive functions in the senior citizens to perform their activities in daily life. Research had been carried out on relationship of physical exercise activity (recent and long term) to perform ADL and IADL. The objectives of the study are: To find out the composite score (z-scores) to check the executive functions of ADL and IADL. To find out the impact of recent and long term physical exercise activities and cognitive executive functions by using z-scores to measure the quality of life in male and female senior citizens. The results of our study show that the recent physical exercise activity does not improve the cognitive functions in the senior citizens through perform ADL and IADL. However long term physical exercise activity improve the cognitive functions in the senior citizens. the females who were having better physical exercise activity have better cognitive functions as compare to male with the same physical exercise activity. It has been found out that the physical exercise activities are important to be performed by the senior citizens to keep their cognitive executive functions intact. The senior citizens who are engaged in the physical exercise activities are less likely develop cognitive development in the old age. Physical exercise activities in the long term have great impact in maintaining the cognitive function in the senior citizens to perform ADL and IADL.
Ejaz Mahmood Ahmad Qureshi,
Syed Amir Gillani,
Physical Exercise Activity, Cognitive Functions and Its Relationship to Quality of Life in the Senior Citizens of Lahore, American Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences.
Vol. 8, No. 5,
2020, pp. 143-155.
Saracli, O., Akca, A. S. D., Atasoy, N., Onder, O., Şenormancı, O., Kaygisız, İ., & Atik, L. (2015). The Relationship between Quality of Life and Cognitive Functions, Anxiety and Depression among Hospitalized Elderly Patients. Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience, 13 (2), 194-200. doi: 10.9758/cpn.2015.13.2.194.
Andel, R., Silverstein, M., & Kareholt, I. (2014). The role of midlife occupational complexity and leisure activity in late-life cognition. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 70 (2), 314-321. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbu110.
Gow, A. J., Pattie, A., & Deary, I. J. (2017). Lifecourse Activity Participation From Early, Mid, and Later Adulthood as Determinants of Cognitive Aging: The Lothian Birth Cohort 1921. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 72 (1), 25–37. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbw124.
Prakash, R. S., Voss, M. W., Erickson, K. I., & Kramer, A. F. (2015). Physical exercise activity and cognitive vitality. Annual review of psychology, 66, 769-797. doi: 10.1146/annurev-psych-010814- 015249.
Kareholt, I., Lennartsson, C., Gatz, M., & Parker, M. G. (2011). Baseline leisure time activity and cognition more than two decades later. International journal of geriatric psychiatry, 26 (1), 65–74. doi: 10.1002/gps.2490.
Abou-Dest, A., Albinet, C. T., Boucard, G., & Audiffren, M. (2012). Swimming as a Positive Moderator of Cognitive Aging: A Cross-Sectional Study with a Multitask Approach. Journal of Aging Research, 2012. doi: 10.1155/2012/273185.
Etnier, J. L., & Chang, Y.-K. (2009). The effect of physical exercise activity on executive function: a brief commentary on definitions, measurement issues, and the current state of the literature. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 31 (4), 469–483. doi: 10.1123/jsep.31.4.469.
Barnes, D. E., Santos-Modesitt, W., Poelke, G., Kramer, A. F., Castro, C., Middleton, L. E., & Yaffe, K. (2013). The mental Activity and eXercise (MAX) trial: a randomized controlled trial to enhance cognitive function in older adults. JAMA internal medicine, 173 (9), 797-804. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.189.
Barnes, L. L., De Leon, C. M., Wilson, R. S., Bienias, J. L., & Evans, D. A. (2004). Social resources and cognitive decline in a population of older African Americans and whites. Neurology, 63 (12), 2322-2326. doi: 10.1212/01.WNL.0000147473.04043.B3.
Oswald, W. D., Gunzelmann, T., Rupprecht, R., & Hagen, B. (2006). Differential effects of single versus combined cognitive and physical training with older adults: the SimA study in a 5- year perspective. European Journal of Ageing, 3 (4), 179-192. doi: 10.1007/s10433-006- 0035-z.
Wilson, R. S., Krueger, K. R., Arnold, S. E., Schneider, J. A., Kelly, J. F., Barnes, L. L.,... & Bennett, D. A. (2007). Loneliness and risk of Alzheimer disease. Archives of general psychiatry, 64 (2), 234-240. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.64.2.234.
Arbuthnott, K., & Frank, J. (2000). Trail making test, part B as a measure of executive control: validation using a set-switching paradigm. Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology, 22 (4), 518-528. doi: 10.1076/1380-3395(200008) 22: 4; 1-0; FT518.
Kortte, K. B., Horner, M. D., & Windham, W. K. (2002). The trail making test, part B: cognitive flexibility or ability to maintain set? Applied neuropsychology, 9 (2), 106–109. doi: 10.1207/S15324826AN0902_5.
Pachana, N. A., Thompson, L. W., Marcopulos, B. A., & Yoash-Gantz, R. (2004). California Older Adult Stroop test (COAST) development of a stroop test adapted for geriatric populations. Clinical gerontologist, 27 (3), 3–22. doi: 10.1300/j018v27n03_02.
Salthouse, T. A., Atkinson, T. M., & Berish, D. E. (2003). Executive functioning as a potential mediator of age-related cognitive decline in normal adults. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 132 (4), 566-594. doi: 10.1037/0096-3422.214.171.1246.
Makizako H, Shimada H, Doi T, et al. Predictive Cutoff Values of the Five-Times Sit-to-Stand Test and the Timed "Up & Go" Test for Disability Incidence in Older People Dwelling in the Community. Physical therapy 2017; 97: 417–24. doi: 10.2522/ptj.20150665.
Oreska Ľ, Slobodova L, Vajda M, Kaplanova A, Tirpakova V, Cvecka J, et al. The effectiveness of two different multimodal training modes on physical performance in elderly. European journal of translational myology. 2020; 30 (1): 8820. doi.org/10.4081/ejtm.2019.8820.
Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Carbin, M. G. (1988). Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory: Twenty-five years of evaluation. Clinical psychology review, 8 (1), 77-100. doi: 10.1016/0272-7358(88) 90050-5.
Arevalo-Rodriguez I, Smailagic N, Roqué I, Figuls M, Ciapponi A, Sanchez-Perez E, et al. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for the detection of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2015; (3): CD010783. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD010783.pub2.
Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Herrmann SD, Meckes N, Bassett Jr. DR, Tudor-Locke C, et al. Compendium of Physical exercise activities 2011: A second update of MET codes and values. Medicine and sport and exercise science. 2011; 43 (8): 1575-1581. doi: 10.1249/mss.0b013e31821ece12.
Stroop, J. R. (1935). Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of experimental psychology, 18 (6), 643.
Scarpina F, Tagini S. The Stroop Color and Word Test. Frontiers in psychology. 2017; 8: 557. doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00557.
Diamond A. Executive functions. Annual review of psychology. 2013; 64: 135-168. doi: 10.1146/annurev-psych-113011-143750.
Rouillard, M., Audiffren, M., Albinet, C., Ali Bahri, M., Garraux, G., & Collette, F. (2016). Contribution of four lifelong factors of cognitive reserve on late cognition in normal aging and Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 39 (2), 142-162. doi: 10.1080/13803395.2016.1207755.
Chung-Yi, L., & Wu, S. C. (2002). Lifetime principal occupation and risk of cognitive impairment among the elderly. Industrial health, 40 (1), 7-13.
Fujishiro K, MacDonald LA, Crowe M, McClure LA, Howard VJ, Wadley VG. The Role of Occupation in Explaining Cognitive Functioning in Later Life: Education and Occupational Complexity in a U.S. National Sample of Black and White Men and Women. The journals of gerontology, Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences. 2019; 74 (7): 1189-1199. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbx112.
Boucard, G. K., Albinet, C. T., Bugaiska, A., Bouquet, C. A., Clarys, D., & Audiffren, M. (2012). Impact of physical exercise activity on executive functions in aging: a selective effect on inhibition among old adults. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 34 (6), 808–827. doi: 10.1123/jsep. 34.6.808.
Anguera, J. A., Boccanfuso, J., Rintoul, J. L., Al-Hashimi, O., Faraji, F., Janowich, J.,... & Gazzaley, A. (2013). Video game training improves cognitive control in the elderly. Nature, 501 (7465), 97-101. doi: 10.1038 / nature12486.
Bherer, L., Erickson, K. I., & Liu-Ambrose, T. (2013). A Review of the Effects of Physical exercise activity and Exercise on Cognitive and Brain Functions in Older Adults. Journal of Aging Research, 2013, 1-8. doi: 10.1155/2013/657508.
Nagamatsu, L. S., Flicker, L., Kramer, A. F., Voss, M. W., Erickson, K. I., Hsu, C. L., & Liu-Ambrose, T. (2014). Exercise is medicine, for the body and the brain. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 48 (12), 943-944. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2013-093224.
Jager, K., Schmidt, M., Conzelmann, A., & Roebers, C. M. (2015). The effects of qualitatively different acute physical exercise activity interventions in real-world settings on executive functions in preadolescent children. mental Health and Physical exercise activity, 9, 1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.mhpa.2015.05.002.
Sodergren, M. (2013). Quality of life predictors of healthy ageing in Males. Maturitas, 75 (2), 113-117. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2013.02.011.
Kelly, M. E., Loughrey, D., Lawlor, B. A., Robertson, I. H., Walsh, C., & Brennan, S. (2014). The impact of exercise on the cognitive functioning of healthy older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Ageing Research Reviews, 16, 12-31. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2014.05.002.
Gearin, B. M., & Fien, H. (2016). Translating the neuroscience of physical exercise activity to education. Trends in Neuroscience and Education, 5 (1), 12-19. doi: 10.1016/j.tine.2016.02.001.
Middleton, L., Kirkland, S., Mitnitski, A., MacPherson, K., & Rockwood, K. (2010). Physical exercise activity and cognition: Effect at mid-life versus late life. Alzheimer’s & Dementia, 7 (4), 614. doi: 10.1016/j.jalz.2011.05.1749.
Castonguay, N., Lussier, M., Bugaiska, A., Lord, C., & Bherer, L. (2015). Executive functions in Males and postmenopausal Females. Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology, 37 (2), 193-208. doi: 10.1080/13803395.2014.1000267.
Ruigrok, A. N., Salimi-Khorshidi, G., Lai, M.-C., Baron-Cohen, S., Lombardo, M. V., Tait, R. J., & Suckling, J. (2014). A meta-analysis of gender differences in human brain structure. Neuroscience & Bio behavioral Reviews, 39, 34–50. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.12.004.
Boulton ER, Horne M, Todd C. Multiple influences on participating in physical activity in older age: Developing a social ecological approach. Health Expectations. 2018; 21 (1): 239–248. doi: 10.1111/hex.12608.
Moreno-Agostino D, Daskalopoulou C, Wu YT, Koukounari A, Haro JM, Tyrovolas S, et al. The impact of physical activity on healthy ageing trajectories: evidence from eight cohort studies. The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity. 2020; 17 (1): 92. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-020-00995-8.
Abraham, A. (2016). Gender and creativity: an overview of psychological and neuroscientific literature. Brain imaging and behavior, 10 (2), 609–618. doi: 10.1007/s11682-015-9410-8.
Venezia, A. C., Guth, L. M., Sapp, R. M., Spangenburg, E. E., & Roth, S. M. (2016). Gender-dependent and independent effects of long-term voluntary wheel running on Bdnf mRNA and protein expression. Physiology & Behavior, 156, 8-15. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2015.12.026.
Baker, L. D., Frank, L. L., Foster-Schubert, K., Green, P. S., Wilkinson, C. W., McTiernan, A.,... & Duncan, G. E. (2010). Effects of aerobic exercise on mild cognitive impairment: a controlled trial. Archives of neurology, 67 (1), 71-79. doi: 10.1001/archneurol.2009.307.
Habacha, H., Molinaro, C., & Dosseville, F. (2014). Effects of Gender, Imagery Ability, and Sports Practice on the Performance of a mental Rotation Task. The American journal of psychology, 127 (3), 313–323. doi: 10.5406/amerjpsyc.127.3.0313.
Bann D, Chen H, Bonell C, Glynn NW, Fielding RA, Manini T, et al. Socioeconomic differences in the benefits of structured physical activity compared with health education on the prevention of major mobility disability in older adults: the LIFE study. Journal of Epidemiology Community Health. 2016; 70 (9): 930–3. doi: 10.1136/jech-2016-207321.
Young, J., Angevaren, M., Rusted, J., & Tabet, N. (2015). Aerobic exercise to improve cognitive function in older people without known cognitive impairment. The Cochrane Library, 1- 141. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD005381.pub4.
Bale, T. L., & Epperson, C. N. (2015). Gender differences and stress across the lifespan. Nature Neuroscience, 18 (10), 1413-1420. doi: 10.1038/nn.411.