Prevalence, Causes, Treatment and the Role of Antioxidants in Ischemic Brain Stroke Diseases: A Review
American Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences
Volume 3, Issue 2-1, March 2015, Pages: 29-32
Received: Jan. 16, 2015;
Accepted: Mar. 3, 2015;
Published: May 13, 2015
Views 4384 Downloads 135
Wasi Ullah khan, Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences University of Science & Technology, Bannu KPK-Pakistan
Rahmat Ali Khan, Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences University of Science & Technology, Bannu KPK-Pakistan
Mushtaq Ahmad, Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences University of Science & Technology, Bannu KPK-Pakistan
Latif ullah Khan, Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences University of Science & Technology, Bannu KPK-Pakistan
M. Waqas Khan, Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences University of Science & Technology, Bannu KPK-Pakistan
Samran Ahmad Durrani, Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences University of Science & Technology, Bannu KPK-Pakistan
Wasim Ahmed, Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences University of Science & Technology, Bannu KPK-Pakistan
This literature review reveals that in the ischemic stroke the blood clot occur in the brain due to which the arteries blocks and stop the blood flow. There are main two types of ischemic stroke one is thrombolic and the other one is embolic. The prevalence of ischemic stroke is about 85% in the U.S while in Pakistan as such no true incidence of stroke was determined but estimated annual rate is 250/100,000 translating to 350,000 new cases every year. The ischemic stroke is more than haemoregic stroke. Approximately 70 percent of patients have ischemic stroke. In the ischemic stroke there are many different types of risk factors or causes are involved due to which the ischemic stroke may cause e.g. oxidative stress, blood pressure, obesity, sex, family history etc. Many ROS are generated and may cause the oxidative stress due to which the brain is damaged and may cause the ischemic stroke. These risk factors may control through proper medications, regular exercise and the intake of many dietary antioxidants. In this type of disease the many different types of antioxidants e.g. (Bilirubin and Glutathione, Tocopherols, Dietary Vitamin E, Antioxidant Vitamin Supplements, Dietary Vitamin C) are also involved which scavenge the free radicals and reduce the chance of oxidative stress and thus the brain prevented from the damage.
Wasi Ullah khan,
Rahmat Ali Khan,
Latif ullah Khan,
M. Waqas Khan,
Samran Ahmad Durrani,
Prevalence, Causes, Treatment and the Role of Antioxidants in Ischemic Brain Stroke Diseases: A Review, American Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences. Special Issue: Phytochemical and Pharmacological Study of Medicinal Plants.
Vol. 3, No. 2-1,
2015, pp. 29-32.
Brooks. M, “Stroke, a Race Against the Clock.” Review Confirms. Medscape Medical News. Available at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/830611. Accessed September 2, 2014.
Emberson. J, Lees. K.R, Lyden. P, Blackwell. L, Albers. G, Bluhmki. E, et al. “Effect of treatment delay, age, and stroke severity on the effects of intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase for acute ischaemic stroke”: a meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomised trials. Lancet. Aug 5 2014
[Guideline] Adams HP Jr, del Zoppo G, Alberts MJ, Bhatt DL, Brass L, Furlan A, et al. Guidelines for the early management of adults with ischemic stroke: a guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council, Clinical Cardiology Council, Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention Council, and the Atherosclerotic Peripheral Vascular Disease and Quality of Care Outcomes in Research Interdisciplinary Working Groups: the American Academy of Neurology affirms the value of this guideline as an educational tool for neurologists. Stroke. May 2007;38(5):1655-711. [Medline].
Adams HP Jr, Davis PH, Leira EC, Chang KC, Bendixen BH, Clarke WR, et al. Baseline NIH Stroke Scale score strongly predicts outcome after stroke: A report of the Trial Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST). Neurology. Jul 13 1999;53(1):126-31. [Medline].
Khealani BA, Wasay M. The burden of stroke criteria used in previous stroke thrombolysis trials, in Pakistan. Int J Stroke 2008;2:1-4.
Kamal AK, Khealani BA, Ansari SA, Afridiv Early is chemic stroke presentation in Pakistan. Can J Neurol Sci. 2009;36:181-6.
Hickey, J. V. (2003). The clinical practice of neurological and neurosurgical nursing (5th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
Warlow, C., Dennis, M., van Gign, J., Hankey, G. J., Sandercock, P., Bamford, J., et al. (2001). Stroke: A practical guide to management (2nd ed.). London: Blackwell Science.
Arboix A, Alio J. Acute cardioembolic cerebral infarction: answers to clinical questions. Curr Cardiol Rev. Feb 2012;8(1):54-67. [Medline].
Adams H, Adams R, Del Zoppo G, Goldstein LB. Guidelines for the early management of patients with ischemic stroke: 2005 guidelines update a scientific statement from the Stroke Council of the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. Apr 2005;36(4):916-23. [Medline].
Brooks M. Migraine Linked to Double Risk for Silent Stroke. Medscape Medical News. Available at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/825451. Accessed May 27, 2014.
Guideline] Goldstein LB, Bushnell CD, Adams RJ, Appel LJ, Braun LT, Chaturvedi S, et al. Guidelines for the primary prevention of stroke: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. Feb 2011;42(2):517-84. [Medline]
Kurl S, Laukkanen JA, Rauramaa R, Lakka TA, Sivenius J, Salonen JT. Cardiorespiratory fitness and the risk for stroke in men. Arch Intern Med. Jul 28 2003;163(14):1682-8. [Medline].
Department of American Heart association and Stroke association.
Hai Chen,et all ,Departments of Neurosurgery and Neurology and Neurological Sciences and Program in Neurosciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California.
Roche M., Rondeau P., Singh N.R., Tarnus E., Bourdon E. The antioxidant properties of serumalbumin. FEBS. Lett. 2008;582:1783–1787.doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2008.04.057. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
Sedlak T.W., Saleh M., Higginson D.S., Paul B.D., Juluri K.R., Snyder S.H. Bilirubin and glutathione have complementary antioxidant and cytoprotective roles. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 2009;106:5171–5176.[PMC free article] [PubMed]
Burton G.W., Joyce A., Ingold K.U. Is vitamin E the only lipid-soluble, chain-breaking antioxidant in human blood plasma and erythrocyte membranes? Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1983;221: 281–290. doi: 10.1016/0003-9861(83)90145-5. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
Traber M.G. Vitamin E regulatory mechanisms. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 2007;27:347–362. doi: 10.1146/annurev.nutr.27.061406.093819. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
Stampfer M.J., Hennekens C.H., Manson J.E., Colditz G.A., Rosner B., Willett W.C. Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary disease in women. N. Engl. J. Med. 1993;328:1444–1449. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199305203282003. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
Rimm E.B., Stampfer M.J., Ascherio A., Giovannucci E., Colditz G.A., Willett W.C. Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease in men. N. Engl. J. Med. 1993;328:1450–1456. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199305203282004. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
Kushi L.H., Folsom A.R., Prineas R.J., Mink P.J., Wu Y., Bostick R.M. Dietary antioxidant vitamins and death from coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. N. Engl. J. Med. 1996;334:1156–1162. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199605023341803. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
Osganian S.K., Stampfer M.J., Rimm E., Spiegelman D., Hu F.B., Manson J.E., Willett W.C. Vitamin C and risk of coronary heart disease in women. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2003;42:246–252. doi: 10.1016/S0735-1097(03)00575-8. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
[No authors listed] Tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic Stroke. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke rt-PA Stroke Study Group. N. Engl. J. Med. 333,
Kwiatkowski, T. G. et al. Effects of tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke at one year. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator Stroke Study Group. N. Engl. J. Med. 340, 1781–1787 (1999).
Grotta, J. & Marler, J. Intravenous rt-PA: a tenth anniversary reflection. Surg. Neurol. 68 (Suppl. 1), S12–S16 (2007).