Oral Mucosal Tolerance Versus Systemic Immune Response to Salmonella typhi Antigen
American Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences
Volume 3, Issue 4-1, July 2015, Pages: 13-16
Received: Mar. 17, 2015;
Accepted: Mar. 28, 2015;
Published: Apr. 23, 2015
Views 3627 Downloads 89
Ibrahim Mohamed Saeed Shnawa, College of Biotechnology, Al-Kasim University, Babylon Province, Iraq
Zainab Khudhur Ahmed Al-Mahdi, Medical Science Department, College of Nursing, Babylon University, Babylon Province, Iraq
It was demonstrated that the oral vaccine application of Salmonella typhi antigen can activate low antibody agglutinin titer (mean:40±0) comparing with high agglutination titer induced by Intramuscular administration of Salmonella typhi antigen (mean 560.0 ± 51.64) as well as anti-Salmonella typhi IgG ELIZA shows high mean index value(mean = 0.6957±0.10) comparing with the low index value induced by oral rout were (mean= 0.028±0.014) while anti Salmonella typhi IgM ELIZA test show mean index value = 0.6339±0.0385 comparing with low IgM index value (mean= 0.1560±0.070) induced by oral rout (Rsquared 0.7457, t test 3.3. The pro –inflammatory cytokines IL-1α was high in intramuscular rout 217.089±39.78 than its concentration with in oral administrated group (100.4±12.09), IL-12 was about the same concentration both in oral rout and intramuscular rout subsequently (23.607 and 23.17) p value 0.01, R squared (0.3958).However the immune responses were not absolutely absent in the oral administrated group, this reflect the fact that there is a selectivity in taking oral antigens from digestive mucosal surfaces but this immune feature and selectivity theme may vary from antigen to another. In conclusion the recent and ongoing expansion of a new information about the mucosal and systemic immune responses lend a promise to provide the tools needed to exploit the full potential and development of both mucosal and intramuscular vaccines.
Ibrahim Mohamed Saeed Shnawa,
Zainab Khudhur Ahmed Al-Mahdi,
Oral Mucosal Tolerance Versus Systemic Immune Response to Salmonella typhi Antigen, American Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences. Special Issue: Advances in Oral Immunity.
Vol. 3, No. 4-1,
2015, pp. 13-16.
Kaufmann, H, E,S; Rouse, B, T, Sacks, D.L. 2011. The Immune Response to Infection. ASM, USA. pp:105.
Neutra M R, Kraenebahl J – P,1996,Antigen uptake by M cell for effective mucosal response, In Kiyono H, Ogra PL, McGee J R, eds, Mucosal Vaccines, Academic Press,London,3-14.
Oleszewska W, Openshaw PJM ,2004,Mucosal VaccinesIn Kauffmann ed, Novel Vaccine Strategies,Wiley,VCH,Verlag,GmbH&Co.,KGaA,Germany,343-359.
Staats H F, McGee JR1996 ,Principles of Mucosal Vaccination. In, Kiyono H, Ogra P L, McGee, J R, eds, Mucosal Vaccines, Academic Press, London, 15- 33.
Ogra P L ,1996,Mucosal Immunoprophlaxis: An introductory overview, In, Kiyono H, Ogra P L, McGee J R, eds, Mucosal Vaccines, Academic Press,London,3-14.
Ogra P L, Faden Hand Welliver R C.2001. Vaccination Strategies for Mucosal Immune Responses. ClinMicrobiol Rev. 2001 Apr; 14(2): 430–445.
Marth T, Strober W, Kelsall BL. 1996.High dose oral tolerance in ovalbumin TCR-transgenic mice: systemic neutralization of IL-12 augments TGF-beta secretion and T cell apoptosis. J Immunol. 15;157(6):2348-57.
Willey J, Sherwood L, Woolverton C. 2008. Microbiology 7th ed. Prescott Harley &Kleins McGraw-Hill.
Svanborg E C, Kulhavy R, Marlid S, Prince S Jand Mestecky J.1985. Urinary immunoglobulins in healthy individuals and children with acute pyelonephritis. Scand .J. Immunol.,305-313.
Steven C D. 2010. Clinical Immunology and Serology: A Laboratory Perspective,3edFA Davis Company, Philadelphia.
Marie-Christiane M, Valerie G R. 2001. Influence of Resident Intestinal Micro oral on the Development and Functions of the Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue. Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease. 13: 65–86.
Herman F. Staats and Francis A. Ennis, Jr. 1999. IL-1 Is an Effective Adjuvant for Mucosal and Systemic Immune Responses When Coadministered with Protein Immunogens1, Herman F. Staats2 and Francis A. Ennis, Jr. The Journal of Immunology. 162: 6141–6147.
Weiner HL. 2001. Oral tolerance: immune mechanisms and the generation of Th3-type TGF-beta-secreting regulatory cells. Microbes Infect. 3(11):947-54.
Jiri M, Zina M, Charles O E. 2005. Immune response versus mucosal tolerance to mucosally administered antigens. J. Vaccine 23:1800–1803.
-Barone K S, Tolarova D D, Ormsby I, Doetschman T, Michael J G. 1998. Induction of oral tolerance in TGF-β1 null mice. J Immunol. 161:154–160.
Mowat A M, Weiner H L. Oral tolerance: physiological basis and clinical applications.1999. In: Ogra P L, Mestecky J, Lamm M E, Strober W, Bienenstock J, McGhee J R, editors. Mucosal immunology. 2nd ed. New York, N.Y: Academic Press; pp. 587–618.
Mason KL, Huffnagle GB, Noverr MC, Kao JY. 2008. Overview of gut immunology. AdvExp Med Biol. 2008; 635:1-14. doi: 10.1007/978-0-387-09550-9_1.
Jasvir S J, Mark J P ,Suman G, Laura K. Phillip W. Marry E B, and Steven D L, Lucill L. 2012. Salivary glands act as mucosal inductive sites via the formation of ectopic germinal centers after site-restricted MCMV infection. J.FASEB, 25(5): 1680-1696.
Weigle W O, 1998, Immune Tolerance Model, In.Delves P J and Roitt I M ed. Encyclopedia of Immunology 2d ed , Vol.4, Academic Press, New York, 2359-2361.
Jiang X, Nicolls M R, 2014, Working towards immune tolerance in lung transplantation, J. Clin. Invest., 124(3)967-970.
Kubn C, You S, Valette F, Endert P V, Bach J-F, Waldmann H, Chatenoud L. 2011, Human CD3 transgenic mice: Preclinical testing of antibodies promoting immunological tolerance, Translat. Med, 3(68):678-78.
Shnawa IMS. 2015. Oral mucosal immune tolerance versus oral immune silenceing: Minireview, Am. J. Biomed. Lif. Sci. 3(4-1)7-9.