Physicochemical Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated Calcium Carbonate Powder
American Journal of Health Research
Volume 3, Issue 6, November 2015, Pages: 368-375
Received: Oct. 29, 2015; Accepted: Nov. 26, 2015; Published: Dec. 18, 2015
Views 6721      Downloads 76
Authors
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, USA
Rama Mohan Tallapragada, Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, USA
Alice Branton, Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, USA
Dahryn Trivedi, Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, USA
Gopal Nayak, Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, USA
Omprakash Latiyal, Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
Rakesh Kumar Mishra, Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
Snehasis Jana, Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is widely used in pharmaceutical industries and as a supplement in probiotics. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical properties of the CaCO3. The CaCO3 powder was divided into two parts and referred as control and treated. The control part was remained untreated, whereas treated part was subjected to Trivedi’s biofield treatment. The control and biofield treated samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analyzer, surface area analyzer, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The XRD showed that the crystallite size of treated CaCO3 was increased up to 100% as compared to the control. In addition, the lattice strain was reduced in treated sample as compared to the control. The particle size analysis result showed that the average particle size was significantly changed after treatment that led to considerably enhance the specific surface area of treated CaCO3 powder by 95% as compared to the control. The FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of the treated calcium carbonate showed shifting of wavenumber attributed to symmetric stretching vibrations of carbonate ion to higher wavenumber as compared to the control. The TGA analysis showed reduction in weight loss and increase in char yield which may be due to the increase in thermal stability of the treated sample. Therefore, the biofield treatment had significantly altered the physicochemical properties of the calcium carbonate. Hence, it is assumed that treated calcium carbonate could be used as a potential supplement of probiotics for food applications.
Keywords
Biofield Energy Treatment, Calcium Carbonate, Particle Size, Surface Area, FT-IR
To cite this article
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Rama Mohan Tallapragada, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Omprakash Latiyal, Rakesh Kumar Mishra, Snehasis Jana, Physicochemical Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated Calcium Carbonate Powder, American Journal of Health Research. Vol. 3, No. 6, 2015, pp. 368-375. doi: 10.11648/j.ajhr.20150306.19
Copyright
Copyright © 2015 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Kechagia M, Basoulis D, Konstantopoulou S, Dimitriadi, D, Gyftopoulou K (2013) Health benefits of probiotics: A review. ISRN Nutr 2013: Article ID 481651.
[2]
Ley RE, Peterson DA, Gordon JI (2006) Ecological and evolutionary forces shaping microbial diversity in the human intestine. Cell 124: 837-848.
[3]
Savage DC (1970) Associations of indigenous microorganisms with gastrointestinal mucosal epithelia. Am J Clin Nutr 23: 1495-1501.
[4]
Whitman WB, Coleman DC, Wiebe WJ (1998) Prokaryotes: The unseen majority. PNAS 95: 6578-6583.
[5]
Toma MM, Pokrotnieks J (2006) Probiotics as functional food: microbiological and medical aspects. Acta Universitatis Latviensis 710: 117-129.
[6]
Salminen, SJ, Gueimonde M, Isolauri E (2005) Probiotics that modify disease risk. J Nutr 135: 1294-1298.
[7]
Vyas U, Ranganathan N (2012) Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics: Gut and Beyond. Gastroenterol Res Pract 2012: Article ID 872716.
[8]
Sanders ME, Gibson GR, Gill HS, Guarner F (2007) Probiotics: their potential to impact human health. CAST 36: 1-20.
[9]
http://probioticsnow.com/supplements (accessed on 3rd September 2015).
[10]
Zhao X, Zhang Y, Li D (2009) Elimination of acidic or oxidative stress for four probiotics with some chemicals in vitro. Afr J Microbiol Res 3: 353-357.
[11]
Kressel G, Wolters M, Hahn A (2010) Bioavailability and solubility of different calcium-salts as a basis for calcium enrichment of beverages. FNSC 1: 53-58.
[12]
Trivedi MK, Nayak G, Patil S, Tallapragada RM, Jana S, et al. (2015) Bio-field treatment: An effective strategy to improve the quality of beef extract and meat infusion powder. J Nutr Food Sci 5: 389.
[13]
Trivedi MK, Patil S, Shettigar H, Bairwa K, Jana S (2015) Effect of biofield treatment on spectral properties of paracetamol and piroxicam. Chem Sci J 6: 98.
[14]
Trivedi MK, Patil S, Tallapragada RM (2013) Effect of biofield treatment on the physical and thermal characteristics of silicon, tin and lead powders. J Material Sci Eng 2: 125.
[15]
Trivedi MK, Patil S, Tallapragada RMR (2015) Effect of biofield treatment on the physical and thermal characteristics of aluminium powders. Ind Eng Manag 4: 151.
[16]
Trivedi MK, Patil S, Tallapragada RM (2013) Effect of biofield treatment on the physical and thermal characteristics of vanadium pentoxide powder. J Material Sci Eng S11: 001.
[17]
Barnes PM, Powell-Griner E, McFann K, Nahin RL (2004) Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults: United States, 2002. Adv Data 343: 1-19.
[18]
Hammerschlag R, Jain S, Baldwin A.L, Gronowicz G, Lutgendorf S.K, et al. (2012) Biofield research: A roundtable discussion of scientific and methodological issues. Journal Altern Complement Med 18: 1081-1086.
[19]
Trivedi MK, Patil S (2008) Impact of an external energy on Staphylococcus epidermis [ATCC –13518] in relation to antibiotic susceptibility and biochemical reactions – An experimental study. J Accord Integr Med 4: 230-235.
[20]
Shinde V, Sances F, Patil S, Spence A (2012) Impact of biofield treatment on growth and yield of lettuce and tomato. Aust J Basic Appl Sci 6: 100-105.
[21]
Hariharan M, Varghese N, Cherian AB, Sreenivasan PV, Paul J, et al. (2014) Synthesis and characterisation of CaCO3 (Calcite) nano particles from cockle shells using chitosan as precursor. IJSRES 4: 1-5.
[22]
Weiss CA, Torres-Cancel K, Moser Rd, Allison PG, Gore ER et al. (2014) Influence of temperature on calcium carbonate polymorph formed from ammonium carbonate and calcium acetate. J Nanotech Smart Mater 1: 1-6.
[23]
Ohenoja K (2014) Particle size distribution and suspension stability in aqueous submicron grinding of CaCO3 and TiO2. Master Thesis, University of Oulu Finland, ISBN 978-952-62-0549-6.
[24]
Schilde C, Breitung-Faes S, Kwade A (2007) Dispersing and grinding of alumina nano particles by different stress mechanisms. Ceramic Forum International 84(13): 12–17.
[25]
Müller F, Peukert W, Polke R, Stenger F (2004) Dispersing nanoparticles in liquids. International Journal of Mineral Processing. 74: S31–S41.
[26]
Suryanarayana C (2001) Mechanical Alloying and Milling. Progress in Materials Science. 46:1-184.
[27]
Dokoumetzidis A, Macheras P (2006) A century of dissolution research: From Noyes and Whitney to the biopharmaceutics classification system. Int J Pharm 321: 1-11.
[28]
Allen LH (1982) Calcium bioavailability and absorption: A review. Am J Clin Nutr 35: 783-808.
[29]
Allen L H (1984) Calcium absorption and requirements during the life span. Nutr News 47: 1-3.
[30]
Ayed MA, Thannoun AM (2006) Calcium bioavailability of calcium carbonate based diets for male growing rats. Mesopotamia J Agric 34.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186