Gray Zone Patients in Our Clinical Data
American Journal of Health Research
Volume 3, Issue 6, November 2015, Pages: 381-385
Received: Dec. 2, 2015; Accepted: Dec. 10, 2015; Published: Dec. 22, 2015
Views 3801      Downloads 86
Arber Neziri, Urology Clinic, University Clinical Center of Kosovo, Prishtina, Kosovo
Flamur Tartari, Service of Urology, M. Tereza, Tirana, Albania
Avni Fetahu, Urology Clinic, University Clinical Center of Kosovo, Prishtina, Kosovo
Liridon Selmani, Urology Clinic, University Clinical Center of Kosovo, Prishtina, Kosovo
Fahredin Veselaj, Urology Clinic, University Clinical Center of Kosovo, Prishtina, Kosovo
Article Tools
Follow on us
Objective: To determine the relationship between the prostate volume and the serum values ofprostate specific antigen among patients in the “grey zone”, classified according to their age group. Gray zone represents serum prostate specific antigen values between 4.1 to 10 ng/ml. Material and Methods: Prospective and retrospective 1420 patients classified in four age-groups with LUTS (Lower urinary tract symptoms) were analyzed. Patients were treated for BPH in the urology clinical at the University Clinical Center of Kosovo during the period of January 2008 - October 2014. Data were recorded from patients according to age, prostate size estimated by transabdominal ultrasound using 3.5MHz ultrasonography, according to the ellipsoid formula, V = D1xD2xD3/2.5, volume of prostate, V=TxAPxCCxPi /6 where T = transverse diameter, AP = antero-posterior diameter, CC = cranial caudal diameter. Patients with confirmed prostate cancer were excluded from the study. Statistical analyses used t-test and ANOVA with 95 and 99% confidence intervals. Results: For the grey zone patients, these mean values were 44.6 cm3 and 5.9 ng/mL. Conclusions: The data provide evidence to support that prostate volume and serum PSA concentration significantly correlate with aging and within the grey zone patients.
Grey Zone, Benign Prostate Hypertrophy, Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA), Volume of Prostate
To cite this article
Arber Neziri, Flamur Tartari, Avni Fetahu, Liridon Selmani, Fahredin Veselaj, Gray Zone Patients in Our Clinical Data, American Journal of Health Research. Vol. 3, No. 6, 2015, pp. 381-385. doi: 10.11648/j.ajhr.20150306.21
Copyright © 2015 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Vesely S et al. Relationship Between Age, Prostate Volume, Prostatespecific Antigen, Symtome Score and Urofflowmetry in Men with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms. Scand J Urol Nephrol 2003: 37: 322-328.
Chung BH, Hong SJ, Cho JS et al. Relationship between serum prostate-specific antigen and prostate volume in Korean men with Benign prostatic hyperplasia:a multicentry study. BJU International 2006, 97: 742-746.
Hedelin H, Johansson N, Stroberg P. Relationship between benign prostatic hyperplasia and lower urinary tract symptoms and correlation between prostate volume and serum prostatic-specific antigen in clinical routine. Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology, 2005; 39: 154-159.
Kefi A, Koseoglu H, Celebi et al. Relation between acute urinary retention, chronic prostatic inflammation and accompanying elevated prostate-specific antigen. Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology, 2006; 40: 155-160.
Tanagho EA, McAninch JW. Smiths General Urology. USA. Prentice-Hall International. Fourteenth edition. 1998: 8-11, 410-434.
Heidennreich A, Aus G, Abbou CC et al. Guidelines on prostate Cancer. EAU, 2007 edition: 9-19.
Mochtar CA, Kiemeney LA, Van Riemsdijk MM et al. Prostate –specific antigen as an estimator of prostate volume in the management of patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. Eur Urol, 2003 Dec: 44(6): 695-700.
Marberger MJ, Andersen JT, Nickel JC et al. Prostate volume and serum prostate-specific antigen as predictors of acute urinary retention. Combined experience from three large multinational placebo-controlled trials. EUR urol, 2000 Nov: 38(5): 563-568.
Roehrborn CG, Boyle P, Gould AL et al. Serum prostate-specific antigen as a predictor of prostate volume in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Urology, 1999 Mar: 53(3): 581-589.
Jacobsen SJ, Jacobson DJ, Girman CJ et al. Natural history of prostatism: risk factors for acute urinary retention. J Urol 1997; 158: 481-487.
Boyle P, Roehrborn CG. Prostate volume predicts outcome of treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia with finasteride: meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.Urology1996; 48: 398-405.
Roehrborn CG, Malice M, Cook TJ et al. Clinical predictors of spontaneous acute reteention in men with LUTS and clinical BPH: a comprehensiv analysis of the pooled placebo groups of several large clinical trials.Urology 2001; 58: 210-216.
Roehrborn CG, Boyle P, Bergner D et al. Serum prostate-specific antigen and prostate volume predict long term changes in symptoms and flow rate; results of four-year,randomized trial compering finasteride versus placebo.PLESS study Group. Urology 1999; 54: 662-669.
Bo M, Ventura M, Marinello et al. Relationship between prostatic antigen (PSA) and volume of the prostate in benign prostatic hyperplasia in the elderly. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2003; 47: 207-211.
Hochberg DA, Armenakas NA, Fracchia JA. Relationship of prostate-specific antigen and prostate volum in patients with biopsy proven benign prostatic hyperplasia. Eur Urol 2003; 44: 695-700.
Di Silverio F,Sciarra A, D Eramo G et al. Relationship among age, prostate specific antigen in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and in different groups of men with and without benign and malignant prostate diseases. Prostate 1998; 36: 1-7.
Jacobson SJ, Jacobson DJ, Girman CJ et al. Natural history of prostatism; risk factors for acute urinary retention. J Urol 1997; 158: 581-487.
Emberton M, Anson K. Acute urinary retention in men: an age old problem. Br Med J 1999; 318: 921-925.
Gustafsson O, Mansour E, Norming U. Prostate –specific antigen (PSA), PSA density and age – adjusted PSA reference values in screening for prostate cancer – a study of a randomly selected population of 2.400 men. Scand J Urol Nephrol 1998; 32: 373-377.
Anjum I, Ahmed M, Azzopardi A et al. Prostatic ifarcton\infection in acute urinary retention secondary to benign prostatichyperplasia. J Urol 1998; 160: 792-793.
Nadler RB, Humphrey PA, Smith DS. Effect of inflammation and benign prostatic hyperplasia on elevated serum prostate specific antigen levels. J Urol 1995; 154: 407-413.
Kessler OJ, Keiseri Y, Servadio C et al. Role of chronic inflammation in the promotion of prostatic hyperplasia in rats. J Urol 1998; 159: 1049-53.
Hasui Y, Marutsuka K, Asada Y et al. Relationship between serum prostate specific antigen and histological prostatitis in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Prostate 1994; 25: 91-6.
Powell PH, Smith PJ, Fenely RC. The identification of patients at risk from acute retention. Br J Urol 1980; 52: 520-522.
Klarskov P, Andersen JT, Asmussen CF et al. Symptoms and signs predictive of the voiding pattern after acute urinary retention in men. Scand J Urol Nephrol 1987; 21: 23-8.
Kohnen PW, Drach GW. Pattern in inflammation in prostatic hyperplasia: a histologic and bacteriolog study. J Urol 1979; 121: 755-60.
Irani J, Levillain P,Goujon JM et al. Inflammation in benign prostatic hyperplasia: correlation with prostate specific antigen value. J Urol 1997; 157: 1301-3.
Scattoni V, Raber M, Montorsi F et al. Percent of free serum prostate-specific antigen and histological findings in patients undergoing open prostatectomy for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Eur Urol 1999; 36: 621-30.
Nickel JC, Downey J, Yung I et al. Asymptomatic inflammation and infection in benign prostatic hyperplasia. BJU Int 1999; 84: 976-81.
Berry SJ, Coffey DS, Walsh PC et al. The development of human benign prostatic hyperplasia with age. J Urol 1984; 132: 474-9.
Partin AW, Oesterling JE, Epstein JI et al. Influence of age and endocrine factors an the volume of benign prostatic hyperplasia. J Urol 1991; 145: 405-9.
Collins GN, Lee RJ, McKelvie GB et al.Relationship between prostate specific antigen,prostate volume and age in the benign prostate. Br J Urol 1993; 71: 445-50.
Uygur MC, Erol D, Cetinkaya M et al. Analysis of prostate –specific antigen values from 4. 846 Turkish men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. The corr elation between prostate-specific antigen and age. Eur Urol 1997; 32: 416-9.
Morote J, Encabo G, Lopez M et al. Prediction of prostate volume based on total and free serum prostate-specific antigen: is it reliable? Eur Urol 2000; 38: 91-5.
Eckhardt MD, Venrooij GE, Boon TA et al. Symptoms and quality of life versus age,prostate volume and urodynamic parameters in 565 strictly selected men with LUTS suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Urology 2001; 57: 695-700.
Watanabe H. Natural History of benign prostatic hypertrophy. Ultrasound Med Biol 1986; 12: 567-71.
Boyle P, Napakov P. Epidemiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia: current perspectives. Eur Urol 1996; 29 (Suppl 1): 7-11.
Abrams P. New words for old: lower urinary tract symptoms for “prostatism”. Br Med J 1994; 308: 929-30.
Abrams P.evalueting lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic obstruction. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl 1999; 203: 1-7.
Richardson TD, Oesterling JE. Age specific reference ranges for serum prostate-specific antigen. Urol Clin North Am 1997; 24: 339-51.
Hedelin H, Johansson N, Stroberg P. Uneven quality of referrals for lower urinary tract symptoms in men. Lakartidningen 2003; 100: 1435-7.
Lepor H, Machi G. Comparison of the AUA symptom index in unselected males and females between 55 and 79 years of age. Urology 1993; 42: 36-40.
Nickel JC, Effective office management of chronic prostatitis. Urol Clin North Am 1998; 25: 667-84.
Mehik A, Hellstrom P, Lukkarinen A et al. Epidemiology of prostatitis in Finish Men. BJU Int 2000; 86: 443-8.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186