Survival Rate of Oral Bacteria on Toothbrush and Miswak Stick
American Journal of Health Research
Volume 4, Issue 5, September 2016, Pages: 134-137
Received: Aug. 28, 2016; Accepted: Sep. 10, 2016; Published: Sep. 29, 2016
Views 3727      Downloads 178
Ismail Abbas Darout, Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, Jazan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Husham Elraih Homeida, Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, Jazan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Article Tools
Follow on us
Introduction: Oral hygiene aids including toothbrushes if not rinsed in a proper disinfectant can affect oral bacterial translocation and re-infection of the oral cavity due contamination. Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to investigate the survival rate of total oral bacteria on toothbrush and miswak. Material and methods: Totally, 12young individuals with age range 22-28 years and with 20 more remaining teeth in the oral cavity participated in this study. These individuals were asked to brush one side of their mouth with miswak stick and the other side with a nylon tooth brush (Orange toothbrush No: 106A China). 6 bristles from a tuft of each toothbrush and equivalent amount of fibers from each miswak stick were cut immediately after brushing for 2 min and serially diluted in anutrient broth. The bacterial suspension was inculcated in agar plates and incubated for overnight. The used toothbrushes and miswak sticks were stored in sterile containers at room temperature and the experiment was then repeated after 24 hours of storage. The survival rates of oral bacteria were then calculated by comparing the total bacterial counts at day one and 24 hours after storage. Results: Miswak sticks harbored an average of 845.6 total oral bacterial counts and 523.7 the toothbrush respectively at a day one. After 24 hours of storage, toothbrush harbors statistically significant p <0.05 more total bacterial counts as compared with miswak stick. Conclusion: The total oral bacterial survival rate on miswak was significantly reduced as compared with a toothbrush, thus the use of miswak after 24 hours can limits the risk for oral bacterial contamination and translocation. This is the first in vivo study which shows bacterial survival rate on miswak.
Bacterial Carriage, Miswak, Toothbrush, Survival Rate of Bacteria
To cite this article
Ismail Abbas Darout, Husham Elraih Homeida, Survival Rate of Oral Bacteria on Toothbrush and Miswak Stick, American Journal of Health Research. Vol. 4, No. 5, 2016, pp. 134-137. doi: 10.11648/j.ajhr.20160405.14
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Loe H. Oral hygiene in the prevention of caries and periodontal disease. Int Dent J 2000; 50: 129-139.
Mehta A, Sequeira PS, Bhat G. Bacterial contamination and decontamination of toothbrushes after use. N Y State Dent J. 2007; 73:20-2.
Sogi SH, Subbareddy VV, Kiran SN.Contamination of toothbrush at different time intervals and effectiveness of various disinfecting solutions in reducing the contamination of toothbrush. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2002; 20:81-5.
Ankola AV, Hebbal M, Eshwar S.How clean is the toothbrush that cleans your tooth?Int J Dent Hyg. 2009; 7:237-40.
Bélanger-Giguère K, Giguère S, Bélanger M.Disinfection of toothbrushes contaminated with Streptococcus mutans. Am J Dent. 2011 Jun; 24:155-8.
Sote EO. The relative effectiveness of chewing sticks and toothbrush on plaque removal. African Dent J 1987;1:48-53.
Ismail A. Darout. Review on chemical and biologically active components of the toothbrush tree (salvadora persica) EJ PM R 2015,2(6): 12-17.
Olsson B. Efficiency of traditional chewing sticks in oral hygiene programs among Ethiopian schoolchildren. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol1978; 6:105-109.
Norton MR, Addy M. Chewing sticks versus toothbrushes in West Africa. A pilot study.ClinPrev Dent 1989; 11:11-13.
Ashley P. Toothbrushing: why, when and how? Dent Update 2001; 28: 36-40.
Meier S, Collier C, Scaletta MG, Stephen J, Kimbrough R, Kettering JD. An in vitro investigation of the efficacy of CPC for use in toothbrush decontamination. J Dent Hyg. 1996; 70.
Neal PR, Rippin JW. The efficacy of a toothbrush disinfectant spray- an in vitro study.J Dent. 2003; 31: 153–157.
Braz Dent J. 2003; 14(1): 58– 62. 26. Srinivusan M, Eapen BR, Bhas G, Kumar C. Efficacy of chlorhexidine as an oral antiseptic–An in vivo study of 20 patients. Middle East J Family Medicine. 2006; 3(5): 22–32. 27.
Wetzel WE, Schaumburg C,Ansari F, Kroger T, Sziegoleit A. Microbial contamination of toothbrushes with different principles of filament anchoring. J Am Dent Assoc. 2005; 136(6): 758–765.
Al lafi T, Ababneh H. The effect of the extract of the miswak (chewing sticks) used in Jordan and the Middle East on oral bacteria. Int Dent J 1995; 45:218-22.
Almas K, al-Bagieh NH, Akpata ES. In vitro antibacterial effect of freshly cut and 1-month-old Miswak extracts. Biomed Letters 1997; 56:145-9.
Darout IA, Skaug N. Salvadora persica as an external source for activation of the salivry peroxidase-thiocyanate and hydrogen peroxide system. Scand JImmunol 1997;45:566.
Xu J, Xu X, Verstraete W. The antimicrobial effect and chemical reactions of acidified nitrite under conditions simulating the stomach. J Applied Microbiol 2001; 90:523-9.
Tenovuo J, Mansson-Raheamtulla B, Pruitt KM, Arnold R. Inhibition of dental plaque acid production by the salivary lactoperoxidase antimicrobial system. Infect Immun 1981; 34:208-12.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186