Retrospective Study of the Seminalysis Report at an Infertility Clinic in South-Eastern Nigeria
American Journal of Health Research
Volume 7, Issue 4, July 2019, Pages: 46-50
Received: Jun. 26, 2019;
Accepted: Jul. 19, 2019;
Published: Aug. 6, 2019
Views 60 Downloads 10
Udokang Nsikak Ephraim, Department of Physiology, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria
Udom Utibe Godwin, Department of Physiology, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria
This study was carried out on 165 men in Nigeria. These men were husbands whose wives were attending infertility clinic in a hospital in Nigeria between the year 2013 and 2016. The semen parameters of these men were evaluated according to WHO (2010) procedures and they include semen volume, total sperm count, sperm concentration, sperm motility and semen pH. The seminalysis recorded are as follows: Semen Volume (ml), 0-1.4 (20.6%, 34men); 1.5-2.9 (34.0%, 56men); 3.0 and above (45.4%, 75men); Total Sperm Count (106/ml), 0-14.9 (18.8%, 31men); 15-29.9 (27.2%, 45men); 30 and above, 54.0%(89men); Sperm Morphology (%), 0-4, 3.7%(6men); 5-50 (46.0%, 76men); 51 and above (50.3%, 83men); Progressive Sperm Motility (%), 0-31 (44.2%, 73men); 32-60 (29.7%, 49men); 61 and above (26.1%, 36men); Total Sperm Motility (%), 0-39 (26.6%, 44men), 40 and above (73.4%, 121men); Semen pH, less than 7.2 (49.1%, 81men); 7.2 -8 (50.6%, 84men). According to this result, and with direct reference to 49.1% of the subjects having abnormal semen pH, it is concluded and in support of the claim that men contribute to almost half of the couples' infertility cases with abnormal sperm motility and semen pH being the highest contributing factors.
Udokang Nsikak Ephraim,
Udom Utibe Godwin,
Retrospective Study of the Seminalysis Report at an Infertility Clinic in South-Eastern Nigeria, American Journal of Health Research.
Vol. 7, No. 4,
2019, pp. 46-50.
Ekwere PD, Archibong EI, Bassey EE, Ekabua JE, Ekanem EI, Feyi Waboso P (2007). Infertility among Nigerian Couplesas seen in Calabar, Port Harcourt Med. J. 2: 35-40.
Ekwere, P. D (2004). Profile of sub-fertile Nigerian men in an infertility clinic in Calabar, Nigeria. Niger J Surg. 10: 37-42.
Zegers-Hochschild F, Adamson GD, De Mouzon J, Ishihara O, Mansour R, et al. (2009) International Committee for Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technology (ICMART) and the World Health Organization (WHO) revised glossary of ART terminology, 2009. FertilSteril 92: 1520-1524.
Panti AA, Sununu YT. The profile of infertility in a teaching Hospital in North West Nigeria. Sahel Med J 2014; 17: 7-11.
Mascarenhas MN, Flaxman SR, Boerma T, Vanderpoel S, Stevens GA (2012) National, Regional, and Global Trends in Infertility Prevalence Since 1990: A Systematic Analysis of 277 Health Surveys. PLoS Med 9 (12): e1001356. doi:10.1371/journal. pmed.1001356.
WHO (1999) Laboratory manual for the examination of human semen and sperm-cervical mucus interaction (4th edn), Geneva, World Health Organization, Switzerland.
Larsen U (2000) Primary and secondary infertility in sub-Saharan Africa. Int J Epidemiol 29: 285-291.
Okonofua EF, Harris D, Odebiyi A, Kane T, Snow RC (1997) Thesocial meaning of infertility in Southwest Nigeria. Health TransRev 7: 205-220.
Ikechebelu JI, Adinma JI, Orie EF, Ikegwuonu SO (2003) High prevalence of male infertility in South-eastern Nigeria. J Obstet Gynaecol 23: 657-659.
Sharlip I. D., Jarow J. P., Belker A. M., Lipshultz L. I., Sigman M., Thomas A. J., Schlegel P. N., Howads S. S., Nehra A., Damewood M. D., Overstreet J. W. and Sadovsky R. Best practice policies for male infertility. Fertil Steril. 2002; 77: 873–82.
Marimuthu P, Kapilashrami MC, Misro MM, Singh G. Evaluation of trend in semen analysis for 11 years in subjects attending a fertility clinic in India. Asian J Androl. 2003; 5: 221–5. [PubMed].
Makker K, AgarwalA, Sharma R (2009) Oxidativestress and male infertility. Indian J Med Res 129: 357-367.
Sherins RJ (1995) How is male infertility defined? In: Handbook of Andrology, Robaire B, Pryor JL and Trasler JM (eds.) Lawrence: American Society of Andrology. Allen Press, USA. pp. 48-51.
Sharma A (2017) Male Infertility; Evidences, Risk Factors, Causes, Diagnosis and Management in Human. Ann Clin Lab Res Vol. 5. No. 3: 188.
World Health Organization Department of Reproductive Health and Research (2010) World Health Organization Laboratory Manual for the Examination and Processing of Human Semen, (5th edn). Geneva, Switzerland.
Chemes EH, Rawe YV: Sperm pathology: a step beyond descriptive morphology. Origin, characterization and fertility potential of abnormal sperm phenotypes in infertile men. Hum Reprod Update 2003, 9:405–428.
Skowronek F, Casanova G, Alciaturi J, Capurro A, Cantu L, Montes JM, Sapiro R: DNA sperm damage correlates with nuclear ultrastructural sperm defects in teratozoospermic men. Andrologia 2012, 44: 59–65.
Agarwal, A., Tvrda E. and Sharmaet, R. Relationship amongst teratozoospermia, seminal oxidative stressandmaleinfertility. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2014; 12: 45.
Singh, A. K., Tomar, S., Chaudhari, A. R. and Singh, R. Sperm motility index and it’s relation to sperm concentration in subjects with impaired fertility potential Biomedical Research 2010; 21 (1): 59-62.
Tampion D, Gibbons RA: Swimming rate of bull spermatozoa invarious media and the effect of dilution. J ReprodFertil1963; 5: 259-275
Said TM, Agarwal A, Sharma RK, Mascha E, Sikka SC, Thomas AJ Jr: Human sperm superoxide anion generation and correlation with semen quality in patients with male infertility. Fertil Steril 2004, 82: 871–877.