Electromotive Administration of Topical Medications in Clinical Physiotherapy Practice: A Review
Oral and injection routes of drug administration has adverse effect in the body system, hence, there is paradigm shift in route of drug administration to the use of electromotive force via the skin where applicable; and this by passes the first pass effect metabolism. Both iontophoresis and ultra-sonophoresis are examples of procedures for the electromotive administration of drugs. Potential serious side-effects are eliminated because transdermal routes of drug administration are known to possess little or no side effects. Iontophoresis is the introduction of medicinal ions into the body using Direct Current. It is a painless, sterile and non invasive technique with minimal adverse reactions in the gastro-intestinal system. The dose depends on current and time of treatment and a typical dosage is 40 mA-min. This review revealed that Iontophoresis is being used to subdue inflammation using topical Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, administer antibiotics to combat infection, manage bicep brachii spasticity of stroke survivours, promote wound healing, reduce bacteria colonization, combat fungal infection; and has produced analgesic effects in several studies. Also, the reviewed showed that ultrasonophoresis is relevant in clinical physiotherapy practice.
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