Comparative Effects of a Single Treatment Session Using Glucosamine Sulphate and Methyl Salicylate on Pain and Hamstring Flexibility of Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis
American Journal of Health Research
Volume 2, Issue 5-1, October 2014, Pages: 40-44
Received: Sep. 2, 2014;
Accepted: Sep. 19, 2014;
Published: Sep. 27, 2014
Views 3102 Downloads 121
Onigbinde Ayodele Teslim, Department of Medical Rehabilitation, College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria
Adesina Olawale Daniel, Department of Medical Rehabilitation, College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria
Tarimo Nesto, Physiotherapy department, Malawi Against Physical Disabilities, P. O. Box 256, Blantyre, Malawi
Ojoawo Adesola, Department of Medical Rehabilitation, College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria
Transdermal delivery of topical medications is commonly used for managing osteoarthritis (OA). Osteoarthritis of the knee joint impairs lower limb functions which contributes to poor gait patterns. There is insufficient empirical data to support the efficacy of glucosamine sulphate and methyl salicilate cream in the management of knee OA. The aims of this study were to compare the immediate effects of glucosamine sulphate and methyl salicylate cream on pain, flexibility and knee flexion. Forty one subjects with grade ll knee OA were recruited for the study. They were randomly assigned to 2 groups. One gram of each topical formulation was administered to the knee joint using massage. Pre and post-intervention pain intensities, hamstring flexibilities and active knee flexion were measured. Descriptive, paired and independent t-tests statistics were used to analyze the data. There were significant reduction in pain intensities within the groups (t = 9.08, p<0.001; t =6.29, p<0.001). However, there was no significant difference in the post treatments pain intensities across the two groups. There were significant increase in the flexibilities of groups 1 and 2 post treatment (t= 9.14, p<0.001) and (t= -5.67, p<0.001) respectively but there was insignificant difference in the flexibilities of the groups. Similarly, there was insignificant difference in the range of motion when the active knee flexions of the two groups were compared. We concluded that transdermal massage of glucosamine was as effective as methyl salicilate in alleviating pains, improving hamstring flexibility and increasing knee flexion range of motion in a single treatment session among knee OA participants in this study.
Onigbinde Ayodele Teslim,
Adesina Olawale Daniel,
Comparative Effects of a Single Treatment Session Using Glucosamine Sulphate and Methyl Salicylate on Pain and Hamstring Flexibility of Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis, American Journal of Health Research. Special Issue:Supplementary Prescribing in Nigeria: A Needy Concept to Promote Clinical Physiotherapy Practice.
Vol. 2, No. 5-1,
2014, pp. 40-44.
Conaghan Philip G, John Dickson, Robert L Grant, Care and management of osteoarthritis in adults: summary of NICE guidance. BMJ. Mar 1, 2008; 336 (7642): 502–503.
Akinpelu AO, Alonge TO, Adekanla BA, Odoles AC. Prevalence and Pattern of Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis in Nigeria: A Community-Based Study. The Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice. July 2009, Volume 7 Number 3, 1 – 7.
Arthritis Foundation. Osteoarthritis. http://www. arthritis.org/conditions/diseasecenter/oa.asp. Accessed on 14th August, 2002.
Barkin RL, Beckerman M, Blum SL, Clark FM, Koh EK, Wu DS. Should nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) be prescribed to the older adult? Drugs Aging. 2010; 27(10):775–789.
Felson DT. Developments in the clinical understanding of osteoarthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2009; 11 (1):203.
Stanos Steven P. Osteoarthritis guidelines: a progressive role for topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare, 2013, 6, 133–137.
Guccione AA, Felson DT, Anderson JJ, et al. The effects of specific medical conditions on the functional limitations of elders in the Framingham Study. Am J Public Health.1994; 84 (3):351–8. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
Onigbinde A. T, Talabi A.E, Ojoawo A.O, Adedoyin R.A, Onifade O.A, Olaitan O.L, Oniyangi S, Belloni O. Effects of glucosamine sulphate iontophoresis on hamstring flexibility of subjects with knee osteoarthritis Medicinal Sportiva- Journal of Romanian Sports Medicine, 2010, vol iv, 2, 1405 – 1410.
Halbertsma JP, Van Bolhuis Al, Goeken LN. Sport stretching: effect on passive muscle stiffness of short hamstrings. Arch Phys Med Rehabil; 1996, 77:688-692.
Kisner Carolyn, Colby Lynn Allen. Stretching for impaired mobility, definitions of terms related to mobility and stretching, flexibility. Therapeutic Exercise: Foundations and Techniques, 5th edition, 2007..
Russel T, Nelson and Williams D. Bandy. Eccentric training and static stretching to improve hamstring flexibility of High School males; Journal of Athletic Training, 2004, 39(3):254-258.
Newell Lori. Hamstring Exercises for Osteoarthritis.Livestrong.com. http://www.livestrong. com/article/529606- hamstring-exercises-for-osteoarthritis, 2011. Accessed on 22nd April 2013
Onigbinde A T, Talabi A E, Okulaja I.A, Dominic O. Comparative efficacy of cycle-ergometry exercise and glucosamine sulphate iontophoresis in pain management of subjects with sub-acute knee osteoarthritis. Medicinal Sportiva, 2011, Vol vii, No 1517-1521.
The Glucosamine osteoarthritis resource centre (2005): Glucosamine and Osteoarthritis;http://www.glucosamine-osteoarthritis.org/glucosamine/Glucosamine -for-arthritis.html. Accessed on 22nd April 2013.
Wani S.K and Gaikwad P. Comparative efficacy of methyl salicylate iontophoresis and moist heat pack in the management of knee osteoarthritis. International Journ. Of Therapy and Rehabilitation, 2012, 19, 10, 541 – 548.
Prausnitz Mark R and Langer Robert (2008).Transdermal drug delivery. Nat Biotechnol. Nov 2008; 26(11): 1261–1268.
Comiskey Bill. Elements Transdermal Massage: Relaxes the body, calms the mind. http://www.massagewarehouse.com/assets/item/ document/ Elements- Transdermal-Massage. Accessed on 3rd July 2014.
Watt Joan. Massage for sports. ISBN-10: 1861261608, 1st Edition, Crowood Press, Limited 2014.
Onigbinde Ayodele Teslim, Oluukola Akindoyin, Funmilola Adenike Faremi, Adaobi Okonji, Oniyangi Shuaib, Olaitan Olukunmi Lanre. An assessment of hamstring flexibility of subjects with knee osteoarthritis and their age matched control. Clinical Medicine Research, 2013, 2 (6): 121-125.
Ozcan O, Boya H, Haluk H O. Clinical evaluation of the proximal tibiofibular joint in knees with severe tibiofemoral primary osteoarthritis. Knee, 2009, 16 : 248-50.
Onigbinde Ayodele Teslim, Orolade Ibidayo Akanji. An assessment of knowledge and opinion of Nigerian physiotherapists on application of Iontophoresis in the management of selected skin disorders and Arthritis. Technology and Health Care, 2012, 20, 169-177.
Adedoyin R.A, Olaogun M.O.B, Fagbeja O.O. Effect of interferential current stimulation in the management of osteoarthritis pain, Physiotherapy, 2002, 88(8):493-499.
Coreconcepts Musculosletetal Health Group. http//:www.coreconcepts. com.sg/mcr/ osteoarthritis-knee/ retrieved 13th April 2013
APBN. Transdermal drug delivery, 2007, Vol. 1, No 6, 336 – 399. http://www. asiabiotech.com /publication/apbn/11/english/preserved-docs. Accessed on 3rd July 2014.
Fox Colleen and Koren Gideon The Motherisk Program. Hospital for Sick Children and the University of Toronto. http://www.musclecare.net/wp-content/themes/musclecare/img/01_PTMC_Toxicology_Review_Abstract_And _Refs.pdf. Accessed on 3rd July 2014.
Oswald Chris. Professional therapy muscle care pain relieving ointment. http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/lookup.cfm. Accessed on 3rd July 2014.
Johnson Dustin L. Safety and Efficacy Data of the Constituent Ingredients of Motion Medicine, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada. www.safety-efficacy/data-of-the-constituentingredients/motionmedicine. Accessed on the 2nd July 2014.
Cohen, M., R. Wolfe, T. Mai, and D. Lewis. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial of a topical cream containing glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and camphor for osteoarthritis of the knee. J. Rheumatol. 2003, 30:523-528.
Reginister J, Bruyere O, Lecart M, Henroitin Y. Naturocetic (glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate) compounds as structure-modifying drugs in the treatment of Osteoarthritis Current Opinion in Rheumatology 2003; 15 (5):651-5. CrossRef, PubMed.
Braham R, B Dawson, C Goodman.The effect of glucosamine supplementation on people experiencing regular knee pain. British Journal of Sports Medicine; 2003, 37:45.
Altman R, Barkin RL. Topical therapy for osteoarthritis: clinical and pharmacologic perspectives. Postgrad Med. 2009, Mar;121 (2):139-47
Towheed TE, Maxwell L, Judd MG, Catton M, Hochberg MC, Wells G. "Acetaminophen for osteoarthritis". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (1): CD004257. doi:10.1002/ 14651858. CD004257.pub2. PMID 1643747,2006. Accessed on the 2nd July 2014.
Illy Gena de and Duberstein Kylee. Effects of daily oral supplementation of glucosamine sulfate on joint range of motion and serum oxidative stress in aged performance horses. http://www.ads.uga.edu/documents/EffectsofDaily OralSupple -mentationof Glucosamine. pdf. Accessed on 3rd July 2014.
Forsyth RK, Brigden CV, Northrop AJ. Double blind investigation of the effects of oral supplementation of combined glucosamine hydrochloride (GHCL) and chondroitin sulphate (CS) on stride characteristics of veteran horses. Equine Vet J Suppl. 2006, Aug, (36):622-5.
Onigbinde A.T. Adedoyin R.A., Johnson O.E. Effect of Physical Therapy Intervention on Pharmacokinetic Variables. Nigerian Journal of Medical Rehabilitation, 2006, Vol, 11, No 19, June, 1 - 5.